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Health Risks and Health Promotion among Unemployed People

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2024 | Viewed by 9165

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
The Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Kassel, 34127 Kassel, Germany
Interests: public health; population health; health promotion; occupational health; health systems; regional health planung; social determinants of health; social vulnerability; unemployment; social work

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis, and it unleashed economic and jobs crises in many countries around the world. As a result, there is a risk of the rates of long-term unemployment increasing worldwide. This Special Issue, published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, aims to analyze the relationship between mass unemployment and health, from the perspective of public health.

Firstly, this Special Issue intends to recruit articles pertaining to the differences in health status, morbidity and premature mortality between unemployed and employed people, arising from their social conditions. An additional topic of interest could concern the relationship between unemployment and suicide.

Secondly, it is well known that unemployment impairs health. However, less is known about healthy coping strategies to deal with unemployment. As a result of this gap in knowledge, in this Special Issue, we look forward to receiving intervention studies on health promotion, prevention measures, counselling, stress reduction, training or group services among unemployed people.

Thirdly, the relationship between unemployment and health behaviour could be examined.

Of particular interest are articles that focus on socially vulnerable groups, e.g., unemployed individuals with disabilities, migrants, youth, single parents or family caregivers. There will be a focus on empirical studies and theoretical articles. Moreover, international reviews and meta-analyses or policy analyses will also be considered.

Prof. Dr. Alfons Hollederer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • unemployment
  • labor market
  • socioeconomic factors
  • health
  • global health
  • epidemiology
  • health inequities
  • mental health
  • disease
  • suicide
  • premature mortality
  • coronavirus Infections
  • disabled persons
  • social vulnerability
  • family caregivers
  • prevention
  • health promotion
  • counseling
  • health behavior
  • alcohol drinking
  • tabacco use
  • stress
  • health services
  • rehabilitation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Psychiatric Morbidity, Utilization and Quality of Mental Health Care in Long-Term Unemployed People
by Birgit Meiler, Andreas G. Franke, Norbert Scherbaum and Josef Rabl
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5066; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065066 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Research has shown complex interactions between unemployment and mental health. However, the prevalence of specific mental disorders, utilization of mental health care services and influences on help-seeking behavior have been investigated surprisingly little in the past. In this study, we investigated a sample [...] Read more.
Research has shown complex interactions between unemployment and mental health. However, the prevalence of specific mental disorders, utilization of mental health care services and influences on help-seeking behavior have been investigated surprisingly little in the past. In this study, we investigated a sample of long-term unemployed people in a cooperation program of the local unemployment agency and a psychiatric university hospital in a larger city in Germany. Mental disorders, treatment history, accordance of treatment to national treatment guidelines and factors influencing previous treatment were assessed. Participants (n = 879; male 56%, female 44%, mean age 43.9 years) showed a high psychiatric morbidity, mostly with diagnoses from the ICD-10 categories F1 (22%), F3 (61%) and F4 (68%). Currently, 18% were in psychiatric treatment, 6% were in psychotherapeutic treatment, and 28% received psychopharmacological treatment. Mostly young men underutilized the psychiatric–psychotherapeutic system, with middle-aged men and women being most frequently in psychopharmacological treatment. Of those treated, only about 10% of the subjects currently received a treatment according to national guidelines. The utilization of psychotherapeutic treatment was strikingly poor. This study identified high psychiatric morbidity and severe treatment gaps in unemployed people. These results can help to target subjects with specific needs for interventions and to modify counseling programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risks and Health Promotion among Unemployed People)
22 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Values, Health and Well-Being of Young Europeans Not in Employment, Education or Training (NEET)
by Marja Hult, Minna Kaarakainen and Deborah De Moortel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 4840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064840 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Youth unemployment is a problem that undermines young people’s health and well-being and is also a concern for their immediate communities and society. Human values predict health-related behaviour; however, this relation is very little studied and not examined earlier among NEET (not in [...] Read more.
Youth unemployment is a problem that undermines young people’s health and well-being and is also a concern for their immediate communities and society. Human values predict health-related behaviour; however, this relation is very little studied and not examined earlier among NEET (not in employment, education or training) young people. This study aimed to explore the association between four higher-order human values (conservation, openness to change, self-enhancement, self-transcendence), self-rated health (SRH) and subjective well-being (SW) among NEET young men and women (n = 3842) across European regions. Pooled European Social Survey data from 2010–2018 were used. First, we run linear regression analysis stratified by European socio-cultural regions and gender. Then, multilevel analyses by gender with interactions were performed. The results show expected variation in value profiles across genders and regions and corresponding differences in SRH and SW. Significant associations between values and SRH and SW were found among both genders and across the regions; however, the results did not entirely confirm the expectations about the “healthiness” of specific values. More likely, prevailing values in societies, such as the social norm to work, might shape these associations. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the factors affecting NEETs’ health and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risks and Health Promotion among Unemployed People)
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14 pages, 485 KiB  
Article
Short- and Long-Term Effects of Underemployment on Workers’ Health: Empirical Analysis from the China Labor Force Dynamics Survey
by Nan Li, Huanhuan Liang, Yi Gao and Dan Wu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416695 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Underemployment is a global problem. This study aimed to assess the short- and long-term effects of underemployment (hidden unemployment) on workers’ health, using data from the China Labor-force Dynamic Survey (CLDS) 2016 and 2014. Indicators reflecting workers’ self-rated health, mental health, prevalence of [...] Read more.
Underemployment is a global problem. This study aimed to assess the short- and long-term effects of underemployment (hidden unemployment) on workers’ health, using data from the China Labor-force Dynamic Survey (CLDS) 2016 and 2014. Indicators reflecting workers’ self-rated health, mental health, prevalence of illness over time, and employment status were analyzed using logit regression models, propensity score matching methods, and instrumental variable methods. Empirical analyses showed that: (1) In the short-term, the impact on health is multidimensional, with underemployment significantly associated with a decline in workers’ self-rated health, an increase in the propensity for depression, and an increase in the prevalence of illness over a certain period of time. (2) In the long-term, the experience of underemployment two years in the past is associated with a current decline in workers’ mental health. That is, the negative effects of underemployment on workers’ mental health persist and do not disappear rapidly over time. The results demonstrated that underemployment is detrimental to workers’ health in the short- and long-term. In the context of epidemic prevention and control, the government and society should focus on this expanding group, establish labor protection mechanisms, and reduce the multiple effects of underemployment on workers’ health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risks and Health Promotion among Unemployed People)
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15 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Emotional Dysregulation and Time Structure Mediate the Link between Perceived Stress and Insomnia among Unemployed Young People in China: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Zhiya Hua, Dandan Ma and Xiaoling Xia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 11883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191911883 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
In recent years, the problem of youth unemployment in China has become a great concern. Unemployed young people often find themselves under tremendous stress and vulnerable to sleep problems. The link between perceived stress and insomnia has been widely documented, but the potential [...] Read more.
In recent years, the problem of youth unemployment in China has become a great concern. Unemployed young people often find themselves under tremendous stress and vulnerable to sleep problems. The link between perceived stress and insomnia has been widely documented, but the potential mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been thoroughly revealed. The objective of this study was to examine the underlying mechanisms linking perceived stress to insomnia through testing the mediating effects of emotional dysregulation and time structure. Through a multiple-stage convenience sampling, 511 unemployed young people (38.6% women; mean age = 21.51; SD = 2.22) were measured using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), 16-item Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-16), and Time Structure Questionnaire (TSQ). Based on the statistical description of the sample, chi-squared tests, bivariate correlation analyses, and mediation analyses were performed. The study indicated that 53.0% (95% CI: 48.7–57.4%) of the participants reported probable insomnia, and both insomnia and perceived stress demonstrated strong associations with emotional dysregulation and time structure, which served as partial mediators between perceived stress and insomnia symptoms according to mediation analyses. Path analysis further revealed that, after controlling for age and gender, emotional dysregulation and time structure accounted for 31.8 and 17.6% of the effect of perceived stress on insomnia, respectively. This study provides empirical support for the association among perceived stress, emotional dysregulation, time structure, and insomnia symptoms. To improve the sleep quality and general wellbeing of unemployed young people, emotional dysregulation and time structure must be taken into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risks and Health Promotion among Unemployed People)
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19 pages, 549 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effectiveness of Health-Oriented Interventions and Health Promotion for Unemployed People—A Meta-Analysis
by Karsten Ingmar Paul and Alfons Hollederer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(11), 6028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20116028 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Background: Unemployment is known to have negative effects on mental and physical health. Yet, the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the health of unemployed people is unclear. Methods: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of extant intervention studies with at least two measurement [...] Read more.
Background: Unemployment is known to have negative effects on mental and physical health. Yet, the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the health of unemployed people is unclear. Methods: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of extant intervention studies with at least two measurement points and a control group. A literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO in December 2021 identified 34 eligible primary studies with 36 independent samples. Results: For mental health, the average meta-analytic effect sizes for the comparison of the intervention group and the control group were significant and of small size after the intervention, d = 0.22; 95% CI [0.08, 0.36], as well as at follow-up, d = 0.11; 95% CI [0.07, 0.16]. Effects on self-assessed physical health status were small and marginally significant (p = 0.10) after the intervention: d = 0.09; 95% CI [−0.02, 0.20], and insignificant at follow-up. However, when job search training was not part of the intervention program (i.e., all available resources were used solely for health promotion), the average effect size for physical health was significant after the intervention, d = 0.17; 95% CI [0.07, 0.27]. Furthermore, the effects of physical activity promotion were significant and of small-to-medium size after the intervention, leading to increased levels of activity, d = 0.30; 95% CI [0.13, 0.47]. Conclusions: Population-based health promotion programs are recommended because even measures with small effect sizes can actually improve the health of a large group of unemployed people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risks and Health Promotion among Unemployed People)
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