Special Issue "Advances in Marine Geology—Selected Papers from P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2022 | Viewed by 1935

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Leopold Lobkovsky
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia
Interests: deformable plate tectonics; modeling of geodynamic processes; geodynamics of the Arctic; hazards on the shelf and continental margins; marine geophysics
Dr. Nadezhda Politova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Shirshov Institute of Ocenology RAS, Moscow, Russia
Interests: problems of modern sedimentation; dispersed sedimentary mater (aerosols, suspended matter, particulate fluxes); bottom sediments; diagenetic processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue deals with the achievements of P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, the largest marine institute in Russia, with 70 years of history. The first marine geological research aboard the R/V “Vityaz” took place in 1949, and geological studies have since taken a front-row seat in the complex oceanological investigations at the Institute. The geological direction of the Institute’s research embraces a wide range of scientific disciplines, such as lithology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and stratigraphy of bottom sediments; micropaleontology and paleo-oceanology; sediment and ore formation; geomorphology, geophysics, tectonics, and geodynamics; geohazards; geochemistry and biogeochemistry; and dynamics of shores and shelves.

One of the most important aspects of the Institute’s geological investigations is the study of the ocean sedimentation process, including systematic studies of water and air suspended matter, as well as of river discharge and sedimentary material dispersal by sea ice and icebergs; and vertical particulate fluxes and bottom sediments as the final stage of this process. Great importance is attached to geochemical and biogeochemical studies of sedimentation and diagenetic processes. Quantitative regularities in the behavior of chemical elements, their cycles, and contribution of various sources to the chemical balance of the ocean have been established. Micropaleontological studies are also successfully carried out at the Institute. In combination with isotopic analyses of ocean sediments, they form the basis for stratigraphic, paleo-oceanological, paleoecological, and paleoclimatic reconstructions and, finally, for the studies of the world oceans’ geological history. In recent years, much attention in the Institute has also been paid to the study of various natural processes in the Arctic seas, and equally important are geodynamic studies, in particular the development of a geodynamic model of the evolution of the Arctic region in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and geodynamic analysis of the seismic cycles of the great earthquakes in the subduction zones. It is our pleasure to present the results of our investigations in this Special Issue.

Dr. Leopold Lobkovsky
Dr. Nadezhda Politova
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Communication
Features of the Largest Earthquake Seismic Cycles in the Western Part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone
Geosciences 2022, 12(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12030107 - 24 Feb 2022
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Abstract
We discussed the peculiarities of the seismic cycle in Aleutian subduction zone, characterized by an oblique subduction setting. It was shown that the orientation of the plate convergence vector relative to the subduction zone axis can have a significant impact on the preparation [...] Read more.
We discussed the peculiarities of the seismic cycle in Aleutian subduction zone, characterized by an oblique subduction setting. It was shown that the orientation of the plate convergence vector relative to the subduction zone axis can have a significant impact on the preparation and occurrence of the largest earthquakes in subduction zones. In particular, from the analysis of the seismic activity occurring in the western part of the Aleutian island arc, it was found that the seismic cycles here are shorter than in the eastern part of the arc. It was revealed that the strongest earthquakes, repeating in the same areas of the western part of the Aleutian subduction zone, differ both in magnitude and length of the fault zone. Taking into account the oblique subduction setting, we proposed the keyboard model of the largest megathrust earthquakes generation as a mechanism potentially capable of explaining the reduction in the seismic cycle duration and noticeable differences in the spatial extent and localization of the fault zones of events with similar magnitudes occurring in the same segment of the western half of the Aleutian subduction zone. Full article
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Article
Peculiarities of Pore Water Ionic Composition in the Bottom Sediments and Subsea Permafrost: A Case Study in the Buor-Khaya Bay
Geosciences 2022, 12(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12020049 - 19 Jan 2022
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Abstract
This paper emphasises an ionic composition of the pore water of bottom sediments and subsea permafrost as an indicator of salinization of the thawed strata. Based on measurements of concentration of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), [...] Read more.
This paper emphasises an ionic composition of the pore water of bottom sediments and subsea permafrost as an indicator of salinization of the thawed strata. Based on measurements of concentration of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) cations, chlorides (Cl) and sulphates (SO42–) in water extracts from bottom sediments and subsea permafrost deposits from three boreholes, a spatial difference in salinization of thawed strata within the Buor-Khaya Bay was shown. The vertical pattern of the macroions in the unfrozen segment was formed under subsea thawing of permafrost. The frozen strata contain fresh pore water and have been evolving under downward penetration of salt and subsequent thawing of subsea permafrost. Based on the analyses of thawed deposits, it was shown that the maximum pore water salinity was observed in the horizons enriched with sand and plant detritus. Over the boundary of subsea permafrost in the Ivashkina Lagoon, the pronounced total ion concentration (up to 50 g/L of Cl) of pore water was observed. This segment consists of moss debris, which is characterised by high porosity. The moss layer promotes the accumulation of dissolved pore water compounds and subsequent thawing of the frozen sediments. Full article
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