Special Issue "Submarine Volcanic Hazards: Ancient and Modern Perspectives"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Paraskevi Nomikou

Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: submarine volcanism, tectonics, 3D reconstruction, physical geography, morpho-geodynamic, seafloor mapping

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over 75% of the volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater; and recent heightened unrest from many submarine volcanoes has raised serious concerns regarding the level of risk posed to local communities. The overall goal of this Special Issue of Geosciences is to evaluate the potential of combining innovative and emerging technologies to enable breakthrough developments in understanding the impact of disastrous submarine volcanic hazards on society. Specifically, this Special Issue aims to provide an outlet for rapid, widely-accessible publication of peer-reviewed studies promoting an integrated approach to underpin new concepts (e.g., for risk monitoring protocols or civil hazard planning), next-generation commercial products (e.g., for in situ sensors or imaging instrumentation), and innovative services (e.g., for education/training or early-warning systems for society) for submarine volcanoes.

This Special Issue aims to cover, without being limited to, the following areas:

Identification of submarine volcanic hazards such as: Volcanic eruptions, volcanic earthquakes, submarine landslides, hydrothermal emissions and volcanogenic tsunamis.

Exploration of optimal monitoring technologies and state-of-the-art methods, providing new insights for further exploration and potential exploitation of submarine volcanoes, which are hosting significant hydrothermal deposits, minerals and fauna.

Volcanic crisis management, general public awareness and preparedness, for a better understanding of the hazards and impacts of submarine volcanoes.

Prof. Paraskevi V. Nomikou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • submarine volcanoes
  • hazards
  • monitoring protocol
  • SoA technology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Volcanic Tremor of Mt. Etna (Italy) Recorded by NEMO-SN1 Seafloor Observatory: A New Perspective on Volcanic Eruptions Monitoring
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030115
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
The NEMO-SN1 seafloor observatory, located 2100 m below sea level and about 40 km from Mt. Etna volcano, normally records a background seismic signal called oceanographic noise. This signal is characterized by high amplitude increases, lasting up to a few days, and by [...] Read more.
The NEMO-SN1 seafloor observatory, located 2100 m below sea level and about 40 km from Mt. Etna volcano, normally records a background seismic signal called oceanographic noise. This signal is characterized by high amplitude increases, lasting up to a few days, and by two typical 0.1 and 0.3 Hz frequencies in its spectrum. Particle motion analysis shows a strong E-W directivity, coinciding with the direction of sea waves; gravity waves induced by local winds are considered the main source of oceanographic noise. During the deployment of NEMO-SN1, the vigorous 2002–2003 Mt. Etna eruption occurred. High-amplitude background signals were recorded during the explosive episodes accompanying the eruption. The spectral content of this signal ranges from 0.1 to 4 Hz, with the most powerful signal in the 0.5–2 Hz band, typical of an Etna volcanic tremor. The tremor recorded by NEMO-SN1 shows a strong NW-SE directivity towards the volcano. Since the receiver is underwater, we inferred the presence of a circulation of magmatic fluids extended under the seafloor. This process is able to generate a signal strong enough to be recorded by the NEMO-SN1 seafloor observatory that hides frequencies linked to the oceanographic noise, permitting the offshore monitoring of the volcanic activity of Mt. Etna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Volcanic Hazards: Ancient and Modern Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
First Macro-Colonizers and Survivors Around Tagoro Submarine Volcano, Canary Islands, Spain
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9010052
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tagoro, the youngest submarine volcano of the Canary Islands, erupted in 2011 South of El Hierro Island. Pre-existing sea floor and inhabiting biological communities were buried by the newly erupted material, promoting the appearance of new habitats. The present study pursues to describe [...] Read more.
Tagoro, the youngest submarine volcano of the Canary Islands, erupted in 2011 South of El Hierro Island. Pre-existing sea floor and inhabiting biological communities were buried by the newly erupted material, promoting the appearance of new habitats. The present study pursues to describe the first metazoans colonizing different new habitats formed during the eruption and to create precedent on this field. Through dredge and remote operated vehicle samplings, five main habitat types have been detected based on the substrate type and burial status after the eruption. Inside the Tagoro volcanic complex (TVC), two new habitats are located in and around the summit and main craters—hydrothermal vents with bacterial mats and sulfurous-like fields mainly colonized by small hydrozoan colonies. Two other habitats are located downslope the TVC; new hard substrate and new mixed substrate, holding the highest biodiversity of the TVC, especially at the mixed bottoms with annelids (Chloeia cf. venusta), arthropods (Monodaeus couchii and Alpheus sp.), cnidarians (Sertularella cf. tenella), and molluscs (Neopycnodonte cochlear) as the first colonizers. An impact evaluation was done comparing the communities of those habitats with the complex and well-established community described at the stable hard substrate outside the TVC, which is constituted of highly abundant hydrozoans (Aglaophenia sp.), antipatharians (Stichopates setacea and Antipathes furcata), and colonizing epibionts (e.g., Neopycnodonte cochlear). Three years after the eruption, species numbers at Tagoro were still low compared to those occurring at similar depths outside the TVC. The first dominant species at the TVC included a large proportion of common suspension feeders of the circalittoral and bathyal hard bottoms of the area, which could have exploited the uncolonized hard bottoms and the post eruptive fertilization of water masses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Volcanic Hazards: Ancient and Modern Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Cyclic Behavior Associated with the Degassing Process at the Shallow Submarine Volcano Tagoro, Canary Islands, Spain
Geosciences 2018, 8(12), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120457
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tagoro, the most recently discovered shallow submarine volcano on the Canary Islands archipelago, Spain, has been studied from the beginning of its eruptive phase in October 2011 until November 2018. In March 2012, it became an active hydrothermal system involving a release of [...] Read more.
Tagoro, the most recently discovered shallow submarine volcano on the Canary Islands archipelago, Spain, has been studied from the beginning of its eruptive phase in October 2011 until November 2018. In March 2012, it became an active hydrothermal system involving a release of heat and gases that produce significant physical–chemical anomalies in the surrounding waters close to the seabed. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and wavelet time-domain-frequency analysis techniques applied to filtered time series of temperature, salinity, pressure, pH, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data from a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) device mounted on a mooring and deployed at the deepest part of the main crater at a depth of 127 m, have been used to better understand the dynamic processes of the emissions during Tagoro’s degasification phase. Our results highlight that the hydrothermal system exhibited a stationary cyclic degassing behavior with a strong peak of a 140-min period centered on a significant interval of 130–170 min at 99.9% confidence. Moreover, important physical–chemical anomalies are still present in the interior of the main crater, such as: (i) thermal increase of +2.55 °C, (ii) salinity decrease of −1.02, (iii) density decrease of −1.43 (kg∙m−3), and (iv) pH decrease of −1.25 units. This confirms that, five years after its origin, the submarine volcano Tagoro is still actively in a degassing phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Volcanic Hazards: Ancient and Modern Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature and Conductivity as Indicators of the Morphology and Activity of a Submarine Volcano: Avyssos (Nisyros) in the South Aegean Sea, Greece
Geosciences 2018, 8(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8060193
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
The morphology and the activity of a submarine caldera, Avyssos, at the northern part of Nisyros volcano in the South Aegean Sea (Greece), has been studied by means of remotely-operated underwater vehicle dives. The recorded time series of temperature and conductivity over the [...] Read more.
The morphology and the activity of a submarine caldera, Avyssos, at the northern part of Nisyros volcano in the South Aegean Sea (Greece), has been studied by means of remotely-operated underwater vehicle dives. The recorded time series of temperature and conductivity over the submarine volcano have been analyzed in terms of the generalized moments method. The findings of the mathematical analysis shed light on the volcanic activity, but also on the morphology (shape) of the submarine volcano. The conductivity time series indicates that the volcano is at rest, in agreement with other types of observations. On the other hand, temperature fluctuations, which in general describe a multifractal process, show that the submarine caldera operates as an open system that interacts with its surroundings. This type of analysis can be used as an indicator for the state of activity and the morphological structure (closed or open system) of a submarine volcano. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Volcanic Hazards: Ancient and Modern Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Resolution Topographic Analyses of Mounds in Southern Acidalia Planitia, Mars: Implications for Possible Mud Volcanism in Submarine and Subaerial Environments
Geosciences 2018, 8(5), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8050152
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (24831 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A northern ocean of Mars is still debated and, if it existed, it may have accompanied valley networks and/or outflow channels, which may have led to the emplacement of a large amount of water to the northern lowlands during the Noachian and/or Hesperian [...] Read more.
A northern ocean of Mars is still debated and, if it existed, it may have accompanied valley networks and/or outflow channels, which may have led to the emplacement of a large amount of water to the northern lowlands during the Noachian and/or Hesperian times. However, it is unclear how and under what conditions (submarine or subaerial) geologic features such as mounds and giant polygons formed in the northern lowlands. The densely-distributed mounds in Chryse and Acidalia Planitia, >1000 km-wide basins of the northern plains, were suggested to be ancient mud volcanoes formed in an aqueous setting, which is controversial (i.e., mud vs. igneous and submarine vs. subaerial). However, these mounds have not been quantitatively well characterized, particularly with respect to their detailed topography. Here we generated forty digital elevation models (DEMs) with resolution of up to 1 m/pixel from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) stereo image pairs, and we accurately measured the morphometric parameters of ~1300 mounds within the southern part of the Acidalia basin. Their heights and diameters resulted in good accordance with those of mud and igneous volcanoes in submarine/subaerial settings on Earth. Maximum depths of their source reservoirs vary from ~30 to ~450 m for a subaqueous setting and from ~110 to ~860 m for a subaerial setting, both of which are consistent with fluid expulsion from the ~100–4500 m-thick flood deposits (Vastitas Borealis Formation, VBF). On the basis of the morphometric values, we estimated rheological properties of materials forming the mounds and found them consistent with a mud flow origin, which does not rule out an igneous origin. The conditions of possible submarine mud or igneous volcanoes may have harbored less hazardous environments for past life on Mars than those on an ocean-free surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Volcanic Hazards: Ancient and Modern Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
A Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics View on Easter Island Seamounts Volume Distribution
Geosciences 2018, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8020052
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the volcanic complex processes, inherent long-range interactions exist suggesting that Non-Extensive Statistical mechanics could be used to describe fundamental properties of the system. Based on the non-extensive Tsallis entropy a frequency-volume distribution function is suggested for the Easter Island-Salas y Gomez seamounts [...] Read more.
In the volcanic complex processes, inherent long-range interactions exist suggesting that Non-Extensive Statistical mechanics could be used to describe fundamental properties of the system. Based on the non-extensive Tsallis entropy a frequency-volume distribution function is suggested for the Easter Island-Salas y Gomez seamounts chain. Our results demonstrate the applicability of fundamental principles of Tsallis entropy to derive the cumulative distribution of seamounts volumes. The work suggests that the processes responsible for hotspot seamount formation are complex and the cumulative frequency-volume distribution of seamounts in the Easter Island/Salas y Gomez Chain (ESC) are well-described by a q-exponential function. The analysis leads to a non-extensive index q = 1.54 in agreement with that presented in other geodynamic or laboratory scale effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Submarine Volcanic Hazards: Ancient and Modern Perspectives)
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