# Temperature and Conductivity as Indicators of the Morphology and Activity of a Submarine Volcano: Avyssos (Nisyros) in the South Aegean Sea, Greece

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

- Step 1: Construction of time series with different lag times.

- Step 2: Estimate of the statistical moments.

- Step 3: In general, the moments will scale according to Equation (4).$$\rho (q,\Delta )\approx {\Delta}^{z\left(q\right)}$$

## 3. Results

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**(

**a**) A bathymetric map of Avyssos off the coast of Nisyros (adopted from [8]). The yellow dashed line roughly defines the borders of Avyssos caldera and the red lines the ROV transects. A black arrow indicates the location of the ROV during data sampling. (

**b**) The geodynamic structure of the Hellenic Arc. (

**c**) The extended Kos-Nisyros-Tilos volcanic field in the eastern Aegean Sea is shown in the bottom right inset.

**Figure 2.**The time series (summer 2010) of (

**a**) temperature and (

**b**) conductivity. Notice that conductivity changes are very small and present a regularity; instead, temperature variations are a bit larger and possess some irregular peaks.

**Figure 3.**The logarithmic plots of variance estimated by using Equation (2) versus the lag time for (

**a**) temperature and (

**b**) conductivity.

**Figure 4.**The structure function $z\left(q\right)$ versus the order of the moment q for the temperature time series.

**Figure 5.**Generalized moments of (

**a**) temperature and (

**b**) conductivity as functions of the lag time, $\Delta $, for different moments q; (

**c**) the same as (

**a**) for the temperature shuffled time series.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Bakalis, E.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nomikou, P.; Zerbetto, F. Temperature and Conductivity as Indicators of the Morphology and Activity of a Submarine Volcano: Avyssos (Nisyros) in the South Aegean Sea, Greece. *Geosciences* **2018**, *8*, 193.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8060193

**AMA Style**

Bakalis E, Mertzimekis TJ, Nomikou P, Zerbetto F. Temperature and Conductivity as Indicators of the Morphology and Activity of a Submarine Volcano: Avyssos (Nisyros) in the South Aegean Sea, Greece. *Geosciences*. 2018; 8(6):193.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8060193

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Bakalis, Evangelos, Theo J. Mertzimekis, Paraskevi Nomikou, and Francesco Zerbetto. 2018. "Temperature and Conductivity as Indicators of the Morphology and Activity of a Submarine Volcano: Avyssos (Nisyros) in the South Aegean Sea, Greece" *Geosciences* 8, no. 6: 193.
https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8060193