Special Issue "Craniofacial Bone and Dental Genetics, Metabolism, Aging, and Disorders"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2022) | Viewed by 5287

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Walid Fakhouri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Diagnostic & Biomedical Sciences, School of Dentistry,1941 East Road, Houston, TX 77054, USA
Interests: craniofacial tissue development; genetics of craniofacial birth defects; salivary gland development and disorders; computational biology of gene regulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mariza Akemi Matsumoto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Basic Sciences at São Paulo State University, Araçatuba School of Dentistry, FOA/UNESP, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil
Interests: bone biology; bone reconstruction; bone metabolism and repair
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Claudia Cristina Biguetti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Podiatric Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Harlingen, TX 78550, USA
Interests: oral and maxillofacial surgery; endochondral ossification; bone graft; phenotypic; bone regeneration; musculoskeletal system
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Nikolaos Soldatos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Periodontics and Dental Hygiene, Board Certified Periodontist-Implant Surgeon, Key Opinion Leader (KOL), MIS Implants Technologies Inc., 18-00 Fair Lawn Ave, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410, USA
2. Ambassador, Academy of Osseointegration, President, Faculty Senate FY2018-2019, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 7500 Cambridge str, Houston, TX 77054, USA
Interests: surgical treatment of periodontal disease and peri-implantitis; implant dentistry; guided bone regeneration; guided tissue regeneration; soft-tissue regeneration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bone and cartilage are intriguing tissues that constitute most of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Both tissues consist of multiple specialized cells that respond to intrinsic and extrinsic stimulants and inhibitors to regulate their cell fate and differentiation. Craniofacial bone forms through intramembranous and endochondral ossification processes. In addition, bone remodeling and repair happen throughout life to maintain its metabolism, physical integrity, and regeneration capacity. This Special Issue aims to publish manuscripts on recent bone genetics and disorders in model organisms to uncover the gene function and regulatory pathways responsible for craniofacial bone development, regeneration, metabolism, and aging. We encourage investigators to submit their relevant studies on the genetics of bone formation, maturation, regeneration, the effect of sex hormones, and response to cytokines and chemokines. This Special Issue seeks to shed more light on current and advanced technologies and studies on craniofacial bone biology to share their knowledge with the scientific community to improve basic science knowledge and translational approaches.

Prof. Dr. Walid Fakhouri
Prof. Dr. Mariza Akemi Matsumoto
Dr. Claudia Cristina Biguetti
Prof. Dr. Nikolaos Soldatos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Genes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bone formation
  • regeneration
  • metabolism
  • sex dimorphism
  • genetic risk factors

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Temperature Changes during Implant Osteotomy Preparations in Human Cadaver Tibiae Comparing MIS® Straight Drills with Densah® Burs
Genes 2022, 13(10), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13101716 - 24 Sep 2022
Viewed by 697
Abstract
(1) Background: Several studies showed a sustained temperature of 47 °C or 50 °C for one minute resulted in vascular stasis and bone resorption with only limited bone regrowth over a 3–4-week healing period. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several studies showed a sustained temperature of 47 °C or 50 °C for one minute resulted in vascular stasis and bone resorption with only limited bone regrowth over a 3–4-week healing period. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the temperature changes (ΔΤ) that occur during the preparation of dental implant osteotomies using MIS® straight drills versus Densah® burs in a clockwise (cutting) drilling protocol. (2) Methods: Two hundred forty (240) osteotomies of two different systems’ drills were prepared at 6 mm depth at 800, 1000, and 1200 revolutions per minute (RPM), in fresh, unembalmed tibiae, obtained by a female cadaver. ΔΤ was calculated by subtracting the baseline temperature on the tibial surface, from the maximum temperature-inside the osteotomy (ΔT = Tmax − Tbase). The variables were evaluated both for their individual and for their synergistic effect on ΔΤ with the use of one-, two-, three- and four-way interactions; (3) Results: An independent and a three-way interaction (drill design, drill width, and RPM) was found in all three RPM for the Densah® burs and at 1000 RPM for the MIS® straight drills. As Densah® burs diameter increased, ΔΤ decreased. The aforementioned pattern was seen only at 1000 RPM for the MIS® straight drills. The usage of drills 20 times more than the implant manufacturers’ recommendation did not significantly affect the ΔΤ. A stereoscopic examination of the specimens confirmed the findings. (4) Conclusions: The independent and synergistic effect of drills’ diameter, design and RPM had a significant effect on ΔΤ in human tibiae, which never exceeded the critical threshold of 47 °C. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Decellularized Xenograft-3D CAD/CAM Carved Bone Matrix Personalized for Human Bone Defect Repair
Genes 2022, 13(5), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13050755 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
About 30–50% of oral cancer patients require mandibulectomy and autologous fibula reconstruction. Autograft is the gold standard choice because of its histocompatibility; however, it requires additional surgery from the patient and with possible complications such as loss of fibula leading to calf weakening [...] Read more.
About 30–50% of oral cancer patients require mandibulectomy and autologous fibula reconstruction. Autograft is the gold standard choice because of its histocompatibility; however, it requires additional surgery from the patient and with possible complications such as loss of fibula leading to calf weakening in the future. Allograft and xenograft are alternatives but are susceptible to immune response. Currently, no personalized bone xenografts are available in the market for large fascial bone defects. In addition, a large-sized complex shape bone graft cannot be produced directly from the raw material. We propose the use of porcine bones with 3D CAD/CAM carving to reconstruct a personalized, wide range and complex-shaped bone. We anticipate that patients can restore their native facial appearance after reconstruction surgery. Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) technology was employed to remove the cells, fat and non-collagenous materials while maintaining a native collagen scaffold as a biomedical device for bone defects. We successfully developed 3D CAD/CAM carved bone matrices, followed by SCCO2 decellularization of those large-sized bones. A lock-and-key puzzle design was employed to fulfil a wide range of large and complex-shaped maxillofacial defects. To conclude, the 3D CAD/CAM carved bone matrices with lock and key puzzle Lego design were completely decellularized by SCCO2 extraction technology with intact natural collagen scaffold. In addition, the processed bone matrices were tested to show excellent cytocompatibility and mechanical stiffness. Thus, we can overcome the limitation of large size and complex shapes of xenograft availability. In addition, the 3D CAD/CAM carving process can provide personalized tailor-designed decellularized bone grafts for the native appearance for maxillofacial reconstruction surgery for oral cancer patients and trauma patients. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effects of Dicationic Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Coatings on Oral Osseointegration of Titanium Implants: A Biocompatibility Study in Multiple Rat Demographics
Genes 2022, 13(4), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13040642 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Dicationic imidazolium-based ionic liquids with amino acid anions, such as IonL-phenylalanine (IonL-Phe), have been proposed as a multifunctional coating for titanium (Ti) dental implants. However, there has been no evaluation of the biocompatibility of these Ti coatings in the oral environment. This study [...] Read more.
Dicationic imidazolium-based ionic liquids with amino acid anions, such as IonL-phenylalanine (IonL-Phe), have been proposed as a multifunctional coating for titanium (Ti) dental implants. However, there has been no evaluation of the biocompatibility of these Ti coatings in the oral environment. This study aims to evaluate the effects of IonL-Phe on early healing and osseointegration of Ti in multiple rat demographics. IonL-Phe-coated and uncoated Ti screws were implanted into four demographic groups of rats to represent biological variations that could affect healing: young males (YMs) and females (YFs), ovariectomized (OVXFs) females, and old males (OMs). Samples underwent histopathological and histomorphometric analysis to evaluate healing at 7 and 30 days around IonL-coated and uncoated Ti. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was also conducted at the 2- and 7-day YM groups to evaluate molecular dynamics of healing while the IonL-Phe was present on the surface. IonL-coated and uncoated implants demonstrated similar histological signs of healing, while coated samples’ differential gene expression of immunological and bone markers was compared with uncoated implants at 2 and 7 days in YMs. While YMs presented suitable osseointegration for both uncoated and IonL-Phe-coated groups, decreased success rate in other demographics resulted from lack of supporting bone in YFs and poor bone quality in OVXFs and OMs. Overall, it was found that IonL-coated samples had increased bone-to-implant contact across all demographic groups. IonL-Phe coating led to successful osseointegration across all animal demographics and presented the potential to prevent failures in scenarios known to be challenged by bacteria. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Osteocytic Pericellular Matrix (PCM): Accelerated Degradation under In Vivo Loading and Unloading Conditions Using a Novel Imaging Approach
Genes 2022, 13(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13010072 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
The proteoglycan-containing pericellular matrix (PCM) controls both the biophysical and biochemical microenvironment of osteocytes, which are the most abundant cells embedded and dispersed in bones. As a molecular sieve, osteocytic PCMs not only regulate mass transport to and from osteocytes but also act [...] Read more.
The proteoglycan-containing pericellular matrix (PCM) controls both the biophysical and biochemical microenvironment of osteocytes, which are the most abundant cells embedded and dispersed in bones. As a molecular sieve, osteocytic PCMs not only regulate mass transport to and from osteocytes but also act as sensors of external mechanical environments. The turnover of osteocytic PCM remains largely unknown due to technical challenges. Here, we report a novel imaging technique based on metabolic labeling and “click-chemistry,” which labels de novo PCM as “halos” surrounding osteocytes in vitro and in vivo. We then tested the method and showed different labeling patterns in young vs. old bones. Further “pulse-chase” experiments revealed dramatic difference in the “half-life” of PCM of cultured osteocytes (~70 h) and that of osteocytes in vivo (~75 d). When mice were subjected to either 3-week hindlimb unloading or 7-week tibial loading (5.1 N, 4 Hz, 3 d/week), PCM half-life was shortened (~20 d) and degradation accelerated. Matrix metallopeptidase MMP-14 was elevated in mechanically loaded osteocytes, which may contribute to PCM degradation. This study provides a detailed procedure that enables semi-quantitative study of the osteocytic PCM remodeling in vivo and in vitro. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop