E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecology and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Douglas Godbold

Institute of Forest Ecology,Universität für Bodenkultur,PeterJordanStr 82,1190 Vienna, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biodiversity and ecosystem function; the biology of roots and mycorrhizas; soil carbon dynamics; disturbance; nutrient uptake
Guest Editor
Dr. Hans Sandén

Institute of Forest Ecology,Universität für Bodenkultur,PeterJordanStr 82,1190 Vienna Austria
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Mathias Mayer

Institute of Forest Ecology,Universität für Bodenkultur,PeterJordanStr 82,1190 Vienna Austria
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fine roots and mycorrhizas play a key role in processes that occur in soils. They act as conduits of carbon transfer, from plants to soils, and as agents of nutrient acquisition and transport. The morphology of fine roots and the type and species identity of mycorrhizas strongly affect carbon transfer and nutrient acquisition. In addition, other processes, such as the exudation of organic acids and other compounds, and the release of extracellular enzymes, link roots and mycorrhizas to soil processes. Moreover, roots and mycorrhizas can alter the decomposition of organic matter by, for example, the exudation of fresh organics, known as the ‘priming effect’. Roots and mycorrhizas are also involved in soil formation, but are, in return, strongly influenced by soil properties. We encourage studies from all fields of root and mycorrhizal ecology, but particularly those which attempt to link the morphology of fine roots and the type and species identity of mycorrhizas to processes in soils.

Prof. Dr. Douglas Godbold
Dr. Hans Sandén
Dr. Mathias Mayer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fine roots
  • Mycorrhizas
  • Carbon Sequestration
  • Biodiversity
  • Nutrient uptake
  • Exudation
  • Extracellular root enzymes
  • Priming effect

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Soil Fungal Community in Norway Spruce Forests under Bark Beetle Attack
Forests 2019, 10(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020109
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bark beetle infestation is a widespread phenomenon in temperate forests, which are facing significant weather fluctuations accompanying climate change. Fungi play key roles in forest ecosystems as symbionts of ectomycorrhizal trees, decomposers, or parasites, but the effect of severe disturbances on their communities [...] Read more.
Bark beetle infestation is a widespread phenomenon in temperate forests, which are facing significant weather fluctuations accompanying climate change. Fungi play key roles in forest ecosystems as symbionts of ectomycorrhizal trees, decomposers, or parasites, but the effect of severe disturbances on their communities is largely unknown. The responses of soil fungal communities following bark beetle attack were determined using Illumina sequencing of soil samples from 10 microsites in a mature forest not attacked by bark beetle, a forest attacked by bark beetle, a forest destroyed by bark beetle, and a stand where all trees were removed after a windstorm. The proportion of ITS2 sequences assigned to mycorrhizal fungal species decreased with increased intensity of bark beetle attack (from 70 to 15%), whereas the proportion of saprotrophs increased (from 29 to 77%). Differences in the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community was further characterized by a decrease in the sequence proportion of Elaphomyces sp. and Russula sp. and an increase in Piloderma sp., Wilcoxina sp., and Thelephora terrestris. Interestingly, the species composition of the ECM fungal community in the forest one year after removing the windstorm-damaged trees was similar to that of the mature forest, despite the sequence proportion attributed to ECM fungi decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Responses of Fine Root Functional Traits to Soil Nutrient Limitations in a Karst Ecosystem of Southwest China
Forests 2018, 9(12), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9120743
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
PDF Full-text (5271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) shortages limit the growth of shrubs, and P shortage limit the growth of trees in karst ecosystems. Changes in fine root functional traits are the important strategies for plants to respond to such nutrient shortages. However, such [...] Read more.
Soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) shortages limit the growth of shrubs, and P shortage limit the growth of trees in karst ecosystems. Changes in fine root functional traits are the important strategies for plants to respond to such nutrient shortages. However, such responses in karst ecosystems are poorly known. To determine the responses of fine root functional traits to soil N and P changes and define their resource-use strategies in the ecosystem, we tested the specific root length (SRL), root tips over the root biomass (RT/RB), and N concentration (Nroot) in the fine roots of four plant species (two shrubs (Alchornea trewioides and Ligustrum sinense) and two trees (Celtis biondii and Pteroceltis tatarinowii)) during the dry (January) and the wet (July) season. The results showed that the SRL, RT/RB, and Nroot in the fine roots of shrub species were lower than those of tree species, and the three parameters were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Linear regression models revealed that the SRL, RT/RB, and Nroot of overall species increased with increasing soil N and P concentrations and availabilities, and were positively correlated with increasing rhizosphere soil oxalic acid, microbial biomass carbon (C), and the activities of hydrolytic enzymes. In addition, the individual plant species had unique patterns of the three fine root traits that resulted affected by the change of soil nutrients and biochemistry. Thus, the specific root length, root tips over the root biomass, and N concentrations of fine roots were species-specific, affected by seasonal change, and correlated with soil nutrients and biochemistry. Our findings suggests that fine root functional traits increase the ability of plant species to tolerate nutrient shortage in karst ecosystems, and possibly indicated that a P-exploitative strategy in tree species and an N-conservative strategy in shrub species were exhibited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Maintenance of K+/Na+ Balance in the Roots of Nitraria sibirica Pall. in Response to NaCl Stress
Forests 2018, 9(10), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9100601
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
PDF Full-text (1263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using Non-invasive Micro-test Technology (NMT), the Na+, K+ and H+ flux profiles in the root meristem regions were investigated in Nitraria sibirica Pall. seedlings under different NaCl concentrations. NaCl stress increased the K+ and Na+ contents in [...] Read more.
Using Non-invasive Micro-test Technology (NMT), the Na+, K+ and H+ flux profiles in the root meristem regions were investigated in Nitraria sibirica Pall. seedlings under different NaCl concentrations. NaCl stress increased the K+ and Na+ contents in the roots of N. sibirica seedlings. NaCl stress significantly increased the steady Na+ efflux from the N. sibirica seedling roots. Steady K+ effluxes were measured in the control roots (without NaCl) and in the roots treated with 200 mM NaCl, and no significant differences were observed between the two treatments. The steady K+ efflux from roots treated with 400 mM NaCl decreased gradually. NaCl treatment significantly increased the H+ influx. Pharmacological experiments showed that amiloride and sodium vanadate significantly inhibited the Na+ efflux and H+ influx, suggesting that the Na+ efflux was mediated by a Na+/H+ antiporter using energy provided by plasma membrane H+-ATPase. The NaCl-induced root K+ efflux was inhibited by the K+ channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), and was significantly increased by the H+-ATPase inhibitor sodium vanadate. The NaCl-induced K+ efflux was mediated by depolarization-activated outward-rectifying K+ channels and nonselective cation channels (NSCCs). Under salt stress, N. sibirica seedlings showed increased Na+ efflux due to increased plasma membrane H+-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiporter activity. High H+ pump activity not only restricts the Na+ influx through NSCCs, but also limits K+ leakage through outward-rectifying K+ channels and NSCCs, leading to maintenance of the K+/Na+ balance and higher salt tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Root Surface Enzyme Activity of Ericaceous Plants and Picea abies Growing at the Tree Line in the Austrian Alps
Forests 2018, 9(9), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090575
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
PDF Full-text (2702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plants with ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal associations coexist at the tree line and in many boreal forests. Both ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal roots are known to produce extracellular enzymes, but ericoid mycorrhizal fungi have been demonstrated in vitro to have higher enzyme activities. [...] Read more.
Plants with ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal associations coexist at the tree line and in many boreal forests. Both ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal roots are known to produce extracellular enzymes, but ericoid mycorrhizal fungi have been demonstrated in vitro to have higher enzyme activities. On hair roots of four ericoid mycorrhizal species (Rhododendron ferrugineum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Calluna vulgaris) and on ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root tips of Picea abies growing at the tree line (1700 m) in the Austrian Alps, potential activities of eight extracellular root enzymes were estimated. Our results show that the activities of all the different extracellular root enzymes were generally similar among the ericaceous plant species. The mean laccase enzyme activity of ectomycorrhizal root tips of Picea abies was significantly higher than that of both the hair roots and fine roots of the ericaceous species. Leucine-amino-peptidase activity on hair roots was significantly higher than on non-mycorrhizal fine roots for the ericaceous vegetation. However, the mean activity of β-glucuronidase of the ericaceous species was significantly higher in fine roots compared to the hair roots. Generally extracellular root enzyme activity is not higher on ericaceous roots compared to ectomycorrhizas of Picea abies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Soil Aggregation and Organic Carbon Dynamics in Poplar Plantations
Forests 2018, 9(9), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090508
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil resident water-stable macroaggregates (diameter (Ø) > 0.25 mm) play a critical role in organic carbon conservation and fertility. However, limited studies have investigated the direct effects of stand development on soil aggregation and its associated mechanisms. Here, we examined the dynamics of [...] Read more.
Soil resident water-stable macroaggregates (diameter (Ø) > 0.25 mm) play a critical role in organic carbon conservation and fertility. However, limited studies have investigated the direct effects of stand development on soil aggregation and its associated mechanisms. Here, we examined the dynamics of soil organic carbon, water-stable macroaggregates, litterfall production, fine-root (Ø < 1 mm) biomass, and soil microbial biomass carbon with stand development in poplar plantations (Populus deltoides L. ‘35’) in Eastern Coastal China, using an age sequence (i.e., five, nine, and 16 years since plantation establishment). We found that the quantity of water-stable macroaggregates and organic carbon content in topsoil (0–10 cm depth) increased significantly with stand age. With increasing stand age, annual aboveground litterfall production did not differ, while fine-root biomass sampled in June, August, and October increased. Further, microbial biomass carbon in the soil increased in June but decreased when sampled in October. Ridge regression analysis revealed that the weighted percentage of small (0.25 mm ≤ Ø < 2 mm) increased with soil microbial biomass carbon, while that of large aggregates (Ø ≥ 2 mm) increased with fine-root biomass as well as microbial biomass carbon. Our results reveal that soil microbial biomass carbon plays a critical role in the formation of both small and large aggregates, while fine roots enhance the formation of large aggregates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Patterns in Ectomycorrhizal Diversity, Community Composition, and Exploration Types in European Beech, Pine, and Spruce Forests
Forests 2018, 9(8), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080445
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are pivotal drivers of ecosystem functioning in temperate and boreal forests. They constitute an important pathway for plant-derived carbon into the soil and facilitate nitrogen and phosphorus acquisition. However, the mechanisms that drive ectomycorrhizal diversity and community composition are still [...] Read more.
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are pivotal drivers of ecosystem functioning in temperate and boreal forests. They constitute an important pathway for plant-derived carbon into the soil and facilitate nitrogen and phosphorus acquisition. However, the mechanisms that drive ectomycorrhizal diversity and community composition are still subject to discussion. We investigated patterns in ectomycorrhizal diversity, community composition, and exploration types on root tips in Fagus sylvatica,Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris stands across Europe. Host tree species is the most important factor shaping the ectomycorrhizal community as well as the distribution of exploration types. Moreover, abiotic factors such as soil properties, N deposition, temperature, and precipitation, were found to significantly influence EM diversity and community composition. A clear differentiation into functional traits by means of exploration types was shown for all ectomycorrhizal communities across the three analyzed tree species. Contact and short-distance exploration types were clearly significantly more abundant than cord- or rhizomorph-forming long-distance exploration types of EM fungi. Medium-distance exploration types were significantly lower in abundance than contact and short-distance types, however they were the most frequent EM taxa and constituted nearly half of the EM community. Furthermore, EM taxa exhibit distinct ecological ranges, and the type of soil exploration seemed to determine whether EM taxa have small or rather big environmental ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests)
Figures

Figure 1

Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top