Special Issue "Impact of Climate Change and Globalisation on Endemic and Emerging Forest Diseases"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecology and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nikica Ogris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Slovenian Forestry Institute, Department of Forest Protection, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: forest pathology; forest diseases; invasive forest pathogens; pathogenicity; diversity; biology; modelling; information technologies
Dr. Benedetto T. Linaldeddu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali (TESAF), University of Padova, viale dell’Università 16, I-35020 Legnaro, Italy
Interests: forest pathology; molecular ecology; fungal endophytes; invasive Phytophthora species; diversity, biology, pathogenicity and taxonomy of Botryosphaeriaceae species
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Understanding how forest health is influenced by global trade, climate change and multitrophic interaction among endemic and alien insect pests and pathogens is a key challenge for the future. In recent decades, many endemic pathogens, including some opportunistic and endophytic species, have modified the nature of interactions with plant hosts as a consequence of climate change and/or the introduction of alien pests and pathogens via global trade. In this Special Issue, we welcome studies dealing with endemic and emerging forest pathogens that have changed their host range, expanded their geographical distribution, or modified their biology in relation to climate change, globalization and interaction with invasive insect pests or pathogens. We also welcome original studies on the economic impact, management, risk assessment and modelling of emerging forest diseases. 

Dr. Nikica Ogris
Dr. Benedetto T. Linaldeddu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • endemic and emerging forest diseases 
  • fungal endophytes 
  • climate change, globalization, global trade 
  • pathogen biology 
  • insect-pathogens interactions 
  • economic impact 
  • phytosanitary risk 
  • management of forest diseases

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Drought Stress Can Induce the Pathogenicity of Cryptostroma corticale, the Causal Agent of Sooty Bark Disease of Sycamore Maple
Forests 2021, 12(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030377 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Reports of sooty bark disease of maples caused by the fungus Cryptostroma corticale have recently been emerging from across Europe. The aims of our study were to describe the first report of sooty bark disease in Slovenia, to determine the pathogenicity of C. [...] Read more.
Reports of sooty bark disease of maples caused by the fungus Cryptostroma corticale have recently been emerging from across Europe. The aims of our study were to describe the first report of sooty bark disease in Slovenia, to determine the pathogenicity of C. corticale, to confirm the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungus, and to determine the mass loss of Acer pseudoplatanus wood inoculated by C. corticale. We confirmed the presence of C. corticale on A. pseudoplatanus via morphological and molecular analysis. The optimal growth of C. corticale was measured in vitro on potato dextrose agar and was determined to occur at 25 °C. Pathogenicity tests were performed on 30 saplings of A. pseudoplatanus under two treatments, humid and drought stress, and the fungus was pathogenic in both treatments. The mean length of bark lesions and wood discoloration of the drought-stressed saplings was significantly greater than that in the humid treatment. Re-isolations of C. corticale were successful from all inoculated saplings, and thus Koch’s postulates were confirmed. The mass loss of A. pseudoplatanus wood was determined by mini-block test in a period of 10 weeks and was observed as minimal. Based on the results, we conclude that C. corticale is a weak and opportunistic pathogen that most likely expresses itself intensively under hot and dry conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Interactions between Eutypella parasitica and Some Frequently Isolated Fungi from the Wood of the Dead Branches of Young Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)
Forests 2020, 11(10), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101072 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
The ten most frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of Acer pseudoplatanus L. were tested in dual cultures to evaluate their in vitro antagonistic activity against Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz, the causative agent of a destructive [...] Read more.
The ten most frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of Acer pseudoplatanus L. were tested in dual cultures to evaluate their in vitro antagonistic activity against Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz, the causative agent of a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The tested fungi, treated also as challenge isolates, were Diaporthe sp., Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, E. parasitica, Fusarium avenaceum, Neocucurbitaria acerina, Neonectria sp., Peniophora incarnata, Petrakia irregularis, and Phomopsis pustulata. The antagonistic ability of each challenge isolate was evaluated by calculating an index of antagonism (AI) based on the interaction type in the dual cultures. The results of competition between the fungal isolates were quantified after re-isolations from the interaction zone (s). The dual cultures revealed two main types of competitive interactions: Deadlock, consisting of mutual inhibition after mycelial contact or at a distance, and replacement, reflecting in the inhibition of E. parasitica, followed by partial overgrowth by the replacing fungus. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in average AI and s of challenge isolates between different dual culture assays. Based on the results of the antagonism index, Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, Neonectria sp., and P. incarnata had the highest inhibitory effect on E. parasitica growth and were recognized as the most promising candidates for further biocontrol studies of E. parasitica. The mycelium of E. parasitica at the interaction zones remained mostly viable, except in dual cultures with Eutypa sp., F. avenaceum, and Neonectria sp., where re-isolations did not yield any colony of the E. parasitica isolate. Based on the results, we assume that E. parasitica is a weak competitor, which invests less energy in direct mycelial competition. We discuss the potential of the observed antagonists as a possible biocontrol of Eutypella canker of maple. Nevertheless, additional experiments should be performed for a solid conclusion about competitive ability of E. parasitica and usefulness of antagonists as biocontrol. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
What Do We Know about Botryosphaeriaceae? An Overview of a Worldwide Cured Dataset
Forests 2021, 12(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030313 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Botryosphaeriaceae-related diseases occur worldwide in a wide variety of plant hosts. The number of studies targeting the distribution, diversity, ecology, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species are consistently increasing. However, with the lack of consistency in species delimitation, the name of hosts, and the [...] Read more.
Botryosphaeriaceae-related diseases occur worldwide in a wide variety of plant hosts. The number of studies targeting the distribution, diversity, ecology, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species are consistently increasing. However, with the lack of consistency in species delimitation, the name of hosts, and the locations of studies, it is almost impossible to quantify the presence of these species worldwide, or the number of different host–fungus interactions that occur. In this review, we collected and organized Botryosphaeriaceae occurrences in a single cured dataset, allowing us to obtain for the first time a complete perspective on species’ global diversity, dispersion, host association, ecological niches, pathogenicity, communication efficiency of new occurrences, and new host–fungus associations. This dataset is freely available through an interactive and online application. The current release (version 1.0) contains 14,405 cured isolates and 2989 literature references of 12,121 different host–fungus interactions with 1692 different plant species from 149 countries. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Laurel Wilt: Current and Potential Impacts and Possibilities for Prevention and Management
Forests 2021, 12(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020181 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
In recent years, outbreaks of nonnative invasive insects and pathogens have caused significant levels of tree mortality and disturbance in various forest ecosystems throughout the United States. Laurel wilt, caused by the pathogen Raffaelea lauricola (T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva) and the primary [...] Read more.
In recent years, outbreaks of nonnative invasive insects and pathogens have caused significant levels of tree mortality and disturbance in various forest ecosystems throughout the United States. Laurel wilt, caused by the pathogen Raffaelea lauricola (T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva) and the primary vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is a nonnative pest-disease complex first reported in the southeastern United States in 2002. Since then, it has spread across eleven southeastern states to date, killing hundreds of millions of trees in the plant family Lauraceae. Here, we examine the impacts of laurel wilt on selected vulnerable Lauraceae in the United States and discuss management methods for limiting geographic expansion and reducing impact. Although about 13 species belonging to the Lauraceae are indigenous to the United States, the highly susceptible members of the family to laurel wilt are the large tree species including redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), with a significant economic impact on the commercial production of avocado (Persea americana Mill.), an important species native to Central America grown in the United States. Preventing new introductions and mitigating the impact of previously introduced nonnative species are critically important to decelerate losses of forest habitat, genetic diversity, and overall ecosystem value. Full article
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