Special Issue "Smart Reinforced Composites Using Carbon and Carbon-Based Nanomaterials"
A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2018
Dr. Elias P. Koumoulos
R-NanoLab - Research Unit of Advanced, Composite, Nano Materials & Nanotechnology, National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Department 9 Heroon Polytechniou St., Zographos, Athens, Greece GR-157 73
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Interests: carbon; nanomaterials; fibres; nanomechanical properties of materials (composites, metals, alloys, polymers, ceramics, functionally graded materials, thin films, elastomers, packaging polymers); smart polymers and composites; environmentally-friendly processes
Prof. Dr. Costas Charitidis
Research Lab of Advanced, Composite, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
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Interests: materials science; nanotechnology; nanomaterials processing; carbon-based materials; microstructure-property relationship; thin film technology (PVD, CVD); contact mechanics
Current technological demands are increasingly stretching the properties of advanced composite materials to expand their applications to more severe or extreme conditions, while, simultaneously, seeking cost-effective production processes and final products. The aim is to demonstrate the influence of different surface enhancing and modification techniques on carbon nanotube (CNT) composite based materials and fillers for high value and high performance applications. These materials are a route to further exploiting advanced materials, using enabling technologies for additional functionalities, without compromising structural integrity. Carbon fiber (CF) based materials have particular advantages of due to their mechanical and electrical properties. Current generation of carbon fibers have extensively been used in a multitude of applications, taking advantage of their valuable properties to provide solutions in complex problems of materials science and technology; however the limits of capability of current technology are now being reached. Although, the global use of fiber-based composites have significantly grown in the past decade, there are still expectations to use them as an alternative (also with proper CNT modification, both in matrix and filler material) to metals in high value, and heavy engineering applications to provide light weight multi-functionality, high structural integrity and enhanced safety.
This Special Issue covers a large scope of research in the area of carbon nanotube (CNT) composite based materials and fillers, and solicits contributions in，but not limited to the key words of the special issue.Dr. Elias P. Koumoulos
Prof. Dr. Costas Charitidis
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Carbon nanotube-based structures
- Carbon nanofiber-based structures
- Graphene and graphene oxide
- Textile and woven-structure composites
- Nano-enabled prepregs and modified resins
- High performance fiber-based structures with multi-functionalities (i.e., enhanced mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, thermal stability, flexibility)
- Smart composites
- Additive manufacturing
- Manufacturing: upscale and regulation
- Life Cycle Assessment
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Effect of Organosolv Lignin Melt Blended with Polyamide 11 or Polyether Block Amide
Author: Teddy Fournier 1, Philippe Poulin 2,* and Alain Derre 2
Affiliation: 1 CANOE : Composites en Aquitaine et Nanostructures OrganiquEs Cheminnov – ENSCBP 16 avenue Pey Berland 33600 Pessac, France; firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel.: +33 (0)54017 5023
2 Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal – CNRS University of Bordeaux 115 avenue Schweitzer 33600 Pessac, France; email@example.com
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +33 (0)5 5684 3028
Abstract: Environmentally friendly technical polymer alloy of various proportions of polyamides and lignin have been prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The properties of Polyamide 11 or Peba (PolyEther Block Amide) and Hardwood Organosolv Lignin (HLO) blends were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Static/Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA) over the entire range of composition. Calorimetry and DMA analysis show variation of glass transition temperature (Tg) between Pebax and lignin although PA11 and lignin maintain their both Tg. However, mechanical and image analysis show interesting properties when integrating about 20-30% lignin into PA11 and good stretching capability when lignin is added up to 30-40% into Pebax. These lignin-based polymer blends can be used as precursor formulation for manufacturing cost-effective carbon fibers.
Keywords: Lignin – bioreffinery – renewable – melt spinning – Polyamides – Fibers – Carbon - Precursor
Title: Interphase characterization of epoxy resin nanocomposites: a molecular dynamics approach
Author: C. Saenz, M. Laspalas, A. Chiminelli, F. Serrano and C. Valero
Affiliation: ITAINNOVA - Aragon Institute of Technology, María de Luna 7, 50014, Zaragoza, Spain
Abstract: In the past few years, carbon-based nanocomposites has attracted remarkably increasing interest owing to what they offer in terms of improvement of thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Due to their nanoscale size, huge aspect ratio and surface area, the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) can notably modify the properties of polymers. As reinforcements, the final behaviour of the composites is strongly affected by the size, structure and the mechanical properties of the interphases generated bewteen the CNTs/CFs and the polymer matrices. However, characterizing these parameters/properties is not straightforward, and no agreement exists about which characterization method is the best one. In addition, generally the techniques should be considered complementary, and a complete characterization usually requires applying more than one method. In this sense, techniques based on computational modelling are identified as powerful analysis/characterization tools alternative to the experimental ones and particularly helpful to increase the understanding of physical/chemical phenomena and materials responses. In the present study, a method for characterizing interphase regions in polymer nanocomposites based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is described. Through density profiles the structure of polymer within the interphase together with its dimension in terms of thickness can be obtained. The interphase thickness is calculated through the accumulated standard deviation profiles. Epoxy resin nanocomposites based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) are studied using this approach, and the interphase regions with triple walled carbon nanotubes (TWCNT) and carbon fibers (CF) are characterized. The influences of carbon nanotube diameter, type of hardener and the effect of cross-linking on interphase thickness are analyzed using MD. Results show that the diameter has a notable impact on interphase thickness, but this effect is affected upon the cross-linking degree of the epoxy resin. The type of hardener also has certain influence on this parameter.
Title: Highly Conductive Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite Electronic Box out-of-autoclave Manufacturing for Space Applications
Authors: Marta Martins 1, Rui Gomes 1, Luís Pina 1, Olaf Reichmann 2, Danielle Teti 3, Nuno Rocha 1,*
Affiliations: 1 INEGI - Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
2 HPS GmbH - High Performance Space Structure Systems
3 ESA ESTEC - European Space Research and Technology Centre
* Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.: +351 229578710
Abstract: One of the main advantages of CFRP electronic housings, when compared with traditionally used aluminum ones, is the potential in mass savings, resulting in significant reductions of launch costs. In recent years, the power consumption of electronics has been growing, causing the need for higher thermal dissipation of electronics, which require the use of highly thermally conducting materials. In this work, we report the manufacturing of a highly conductive CFRP electronic housing. Due to the significantly higher material costs, the total electronic box costs were minimized by using an out-of-the autoclave manufacturing process. Due to the inherent low thermal conductivity of typical raw-materials used in composite materials, strategies were evaluated to increase its value by changing the components used. The use of pitch-based carbon fibres was found a very promising solution. In addition, structural and thermal box design and manufacturing conditions were developed. Improved performance was demonstrated from materials manufacturing to final breadboard testing. The results indicate possible gains of 23% in mass when compared to conventional aluminium electronic boxes.
Keywords: electronic box; CFRP; Space
Title: Reinforcement systems for carbon concrete composites based on low-cost carbon fibers
Authors: Robert Böhm 1,*, Mike Thieme 1, Daniel Wohlfahrt 1, Daniel S. Wolz 1, Benjamin Richter 1 and Hubert Jäger 1
Affiliation: 1 Institute of Lightweight Engineering and Polymer Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Holbeinstraße 3, 01307 Dresden, Germany
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +49-351-463-38080
Abstract: Carbon concrete composites are a new promising material class for the building industry. The replacement of the traditional heavy and corroding steel reinforcement by carbon fiber (CF) based reinforcement offers many significant advantages: a higher protection of environmental resources because of lower CO2 consumption during cement production, a longer lifecycle and thus muss less damage in structural components and a higher degree of design freedom because lightweight solutions can be realized. However, due to cost pressure in civil engineering, completely new process chains are required to manufacture CF based reinforcement structures for concrete. The article describes the necessary process steps in order to develop CF reinforcement: (1) the production of cost-effective CF using novel carbon fiber lines, (2) the fabrication of CF rods with different geometry profiles and (3) the manufacturing of the CF based concrete itself. It was found that Lignin-based CF is currently the most promising material in order to meet the future market demands. However, significant research needs to be undertaken in order to improve the properties of Lignin-based CF. The CF can be manufactured to CF-based rods using a novel patented manufacturing technology for thermoplastic materials called ‘helix pultrusion’.
Keywords: carbon concrete composites; low-cost carbon fibres; pultrusion
Title: High-Performance Multifunctional Composites Reinforced with CNT-coated Carbon Fiber Fabric Produced by Continuous EPD Process
Authors: Guan Gong 1,*, Birgitha Nyström 1, Erik Sandlund 1 , Daniel Eklund 1, Maxime Noël1, Robert Westerlund1, Liva Pupure 1,2, Andrejs Pupurs 1,2 and Roberts Joffe 1,2
1 Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE 941 26, Piteå, Sweden
2 Luleå University of Technology, SE 971 87, Luleå, Sweden
* Correspondence: Guan.Gong@swerea.se; Tel.: +46-911-74416
Abstract: A newly developed and scaled up continuous electrophoretic deposition (EPD) setup was employed for deposition of carbon nano-tubes (CNT) onto carbon fiber fabric. This multi-scale reinforcement was used to manufacture polymer composites with the objective to improve fracture toughness as well as enhance electrical and thermal conductivity of materials. Comprehensive characterization of thermos-mechanical properties of unidirectional and multi-axial laminates along with microscopy was carried out. Initial mechanical tests showed that the flexural stiffness and strength of composites with multi-scale reinforcement are significantly reduced with higher decrease for higher contents of nano-reinforcement. Analysis of these results along with optical microscopy revealed that due to change of permeability of the nano-doped reinforcement the geometrical imperfections have been introduced into composite during the processing. These defects (e.g. fiber or bundle waviness and misalignment) are likely to shadow (or completely diminish) enhancement of mechanical properties due to addition of CNT. Thus, suitable carbon fiber fabric should be selected for the manufacturing of multi-scale reinforcement and fabric has to be secured in the mold during the processing of composites. In order to separate effect of defects on micro- and meso- scale (fiber/bundle misalignment) from improvement of properties by nano-reinforcement, the reference fabric was subjected to the same treatment as modified reinforcement (but without addition of CNT). The improvement of performance of multi-scale composites was observed when material with reference-treated fabric is compared against composites with CNT-modified fabric. The results showed that addition of nano-scale reinforcement into conventional micro-sized fabric improves toughness of composites by increasing interlaminar shear strength and delaying initiation/propagation of micro-cracks.
Keywords: electrophoretic deposition; carbon nanotube; multi-scale carbon reinforcement; multifunctional composites