Cellulose Fibers

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2014) | Viewed by 78052

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Fiber and Biopolymer Research Instutute, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 45019, Lubbock, TX 79403, USA
Interests: biopolymers; smart gels
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Deparment of Chemical Engineering, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Interests: biomaterials; bionanohydrids; biomass engineering; biostructures; polysaccharides
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cellulose is obtained from cotton, wood, and other plants. Cellulose is natural cellulose macromolecules with repeating anhydroglucose units (b(1-4)D glcuopyrranose).  On each unit, there are three available hydroxyl groups.  These hydroxyl groups serve as sites for water molecules absorption by establishing many hydrogen bonds with the cellulose macromolecules. Cotton fibers are composed of 95% cellulose. After scouring and bleaching, cotton fibers are composed 100% of cellulose.  The degree of polymerization of cellulose in cotton fibers varies between 8,000 and 15,000.  Cotton fibers are directly spun into yarn and then woven or knitted fabrics are made.  Wood contains about 40-50% cellulose.  Cellulose from wood is converted to fibers through different chemical processes.  Rayon, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate, and lyocell are the major commercial fibers manufactured.  The objective of this special issue is to focus on the main cellulose fibers: cotton, rayon (viscose), cellulose acetate, cellulose triacetate, and lyocell.  Original research as well as review papers are invited for this special issue.

Dr. Noureddine Abidi
Prof. Dr. Pedro Fardim
Prof. Dr. Kecheng Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cotton
  • rayon
  • lyocell
  • viscose
  • cellulose
  • cellulose acetate

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

51012 KiB  
Article
In Situ Hybridization of Pulp Fibers Using Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides
by Carl-Erik Lange, Mika Lastusaari, Mehedi Reza, Seyed Kourosh Latifi, Pasi Kallio and Pedro Fardim
Fibers 2015, 3(2), 103-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib3020103 - 29 Apr 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7333
Abstract
Inorganic Mg2+ and Al3+ containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) particles were synthesised in situ from aqueous solution onto chemical pulp fibers of pine (Pinus sylvestris). High super saturated (hss) solution with sodium carbonate produced LDH particles with an average diameter of 100–200 nm. [...] Read more.
Inorganic Mg2+ and Al3+ containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) particles were synthesised in situ from aqueous solution onto chemical pulp fibers of pine (Pinus sylvestris). High super saturated (hss) solution with sodium carbonate produced LDH particles with an average diameter of 100–200 nm. Nano-size (70 nm) LDH particles were found from fibers external surface and, to a lesser degree, from the S2 cell wall after synthesis via low super saturated (lss) route. The synthesis via slow urea hydrolysis (Uhyd) yielded micron and clay sized LDH (2–5 μm) and enabled efficient fiber densification via mineralization of S2 fiber wall layer as indicated by TEM and compliance analysis. The Uhyd method decreased fiber compliance up to 50%. Reduction in the polymerisation degree of cellulose was observed with capillary viscometry. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the hybridization with LDH reduced the exothermic heat, indicating, that this material can be incorporated in flame retardant applications. Fiber charge was assessed by Fibers 2015, 3 104 adsorption expermients with methylene blue (MB) and metanil yellow (MY). Synthesis via lss route retained most of the fibres original charge and provided the highest capacity (10 μmol/g) for anionic MY, indicating cationic character of hybrid fibers. Our results suggested that mineralized fibers can be potentially used in advanced applications such as biocomposites and adsorbent materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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1356 KiB  
Article
FT-IR Examination of the Development of Secondary Cell Wall in Cotton Fibers
by Michael Santiago Cintrón and Doug J. Hinchliffe
Fibers 2015, 3(1), 30-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib3010030 - 29 Jan 2015
Cited by 82 | Viewed by 11085
Abstract
The secondary cell wall development of cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering was examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. Spectra of deuterated cotton fibers did not demonstrate significant changes in [...] Read more.
The secondary cell wall development of cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering was examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. Spectra of deuterated cotton fibers did not demonstrate significant changes in their O–H stretching band shapes or positions during development. Only a progressive increase in O–H band intensity was observed. Results indicate that the highly crystalline cellulose component produced during secondary cell wall formation maintains the hydrogen bonding network observed for the primary cell wall. Other general changes were observed for the regular ATR spectra. A progressive intensity increase for bands assigned to cellulose Iβ was observed during fiber development, including a marked intensity increase for vibrations at 1002 and 985 cm−1. In contrast, C–O vibrational bands from dominant conformations observed at 1104, 1052, 1028 cm−1 undergo a modest intensity increase during secondary cell wall development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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1045 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Zeolite/Cellulose Acetate Fibers for Ion Exchange of Pb2+
by Daniel N. Tran, Anne M. Marti and Kenneth J. Balkus, Jr.
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 308-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040308 - 5 Dec 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 11601
Abstract
The ion exchange capability of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers containing zeolite A nanoparticles is reported. Solid and porous CA fibers were used to make a zeolite-embedded filter paper, which was then used to ion exchange Na+ with Cu2+ and Pb [...] Read more.
The ion exchange capability of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers containing zeolite A nanoparticles is reported. Solid and porous CA fibers were used to make a zeolite-embedded filter paper, which was then used to ion exchange Na+ with Cu2+ and Pb2+. The composite Linde Type A (LTA) zeolite CA fibers exchanged 0.39 mmol/g more Pb2+ than LTA nanoparticles in the solid CA fibers. These fibers could provide a simple and effective method for heavy metal ion removal in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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501 KiB  
Article
Smart Cellulose Fibers Coated with Carbon Nanotube Networks
by Haisong Qi, Jianwen Liu and Edith Mäder
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 295-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040295 - 13 Nov 2014
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 11436
Abstract
Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning [...] Read more.
Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between MWCNT networks and cellulose fiber was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The piezoresistivity of these fibers for strain sensing was investigated. The MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers exhibited a unique linear strain-dependent electrical resistance change up to 18% strain, with good reversibility and repeatability. In addition, the sensing behavior of these fibers to volatile molecules (including vapors of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran) was investigated. The results revealed a rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for these chemical vapors. Besides, they showed good selectivity to different vapors. It is suggested that the intrinsic physical and chemical features of cellulose fiber, well-formed MWCNT networks and favorable MWCNT-cellulose interaction caused the unique and excellent sensing ability of the MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers, which have the potential to be used as smart materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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4006 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Developing Cotton Fibers by Confocal Raman Microscopy
by Luis Cabrales, Noureddine Abidi and Felicia Manciu
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 285-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040285 - 27 Oct 2014
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 9319
Abstract
Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool [...] Read more.
Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool in biological and plant research. The advantage of using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) resides in the lateral spatial resolution and in the fact that Raman spectroscopy provides not only chemical composition information, but also structural information. Cross-sections of cotton fibers harvested at different developmental stages were studied with CRM. The Raman bands assigned to cellulose were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that CRM can be used as a tool to study cellulose deposition in cotton fibers and could provide useful information on cellulose deposition during cotton fiber development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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554 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Examinations for the Identification of U.S. Domestic and International Cotton Fibers by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
by Chanel Fortier and James Rodgers
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 264-274; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040264 - 29 Sep 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 8179
Abstract
Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile [...] Read more.
Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick, reliable method to classify U.S. from foreign cottons so that the appropriate tariffs can be levied for non-American cottons. In addition, there is some interest in avoiding cotton identity theft. Thus, an accurate and precise instrumental method would be of interest to correctly identify the country of origin of cotton. This study provides an analytical method to identify domestic and foreign cotton fibers using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA). Samples from American cottons were evaluated along with a representative amount of international samples. The results provide a proof of concept that indicates that PCA analysis can be used to separate the respective domestic and foreign cotton groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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8217 KiB  
Article
Effect of Impregnated Inorganic Nanoparticles on the Properties of the Kenaf Bast Fibers
by Kaiwen Liang, Sheldon Q. Shi and Ge Wang
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 242-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2030242 - 22 Aug 2014
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 9462
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the properties of the chemically retted kenaf bast fiber impregnated with the inorganic nanoparticles. High quality kenaf bast fibers were obtained from a chemical retting process. An in situ inorganic nanoparticle impregnation (INI) process was [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the properties of the chemically retted kenaf bast fiber impregnated with the inorganic nanoparticles. High quality kenaf bast fibers were obtained from a chemical retting process. An in situ inorganic nanoparticle impregnation (INI) process was used to introduce the CaCO3 nanoparticles into the retted kenaf bast fibers. It was found that some of the lignin-based components in the retted fibers were further removed during the INI treatment. From the characterization results, the inorganic nanoparticles CaCO3, with different shapes and sizes, appeared at the surface of the impregnated fiber after treatment. Heterogeneous CaCO3 nanoparticle distribution was observed on the INI treated fibers. The CaCO3 contents were different at different locations along the impregnated fiber. The presence of CaCO3 inorganic nanoparticles at the fiber surface increased the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness by 5.8% and decreased the hydrophilic nature of the retted fibers, evidenced by a 59.4% decrease in adhesion force between the fiber and hydrophilic AFM tip. In addition, the impregnation of CaCO3 dramatically increased the Young’s modulus of the fiber by 344%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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322 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Study of Linear Density, Tenacity, and Crystallinity of Cotton Fibers
by Yongliang Liu, Devron Thibodeaux and James Rodgers
Fibers 2014, 2(3), 211-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2030211 - 14 Jul 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8528
Abstract
An investigation of the relationships among fiber linear density, tenacity, and structure is important to help cotton breeders modify varieties for enhanced fiber end-use qualities. This study employed the Stelometer instrument, which is the traditional fiber tenacity reference method and might still be [...] Read more.
An investigation of the relationships among fiber linear density, tenacity, and structure is important to help cotton breeders modify varieties for enhanced fiber end-use qualities. This study employed the Stelometer instrument, which is the traditional fiber tenacity reference method and might still be an option as a rapid screening tool because of its low cost and portable attributes. In addition to flat bundle break force and weight variables from a routine Stelometer test, the number of fibers in the bundle were counted manually and the fiber crystallinity (CIIR) was characterized by the previously proposed attenuated total reflection-sampling device based Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) protocol. Based on the plots of either tenacity vs. linear density or fiber count vs. mass, the fibers were subjectively divided into fine or coarse sets, respectively. Relative to the distinctive increase in fiber tenacity with linear density, there was an unclear trend between the linear density and CIIR for these fibers. Samples with similar linear density were found to increase in tenacity with fiber CIIR. In general, Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) fineness increases with fiber linear density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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