Special Issue "The 1st “The Belt and Road Initiative” International Conference on Sustainable Refrigeration and Air Conditioning"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kamel Hooman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 Australia
Interests: heat transfer and energy; geo/solar thermal power plants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Xiang Huang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Polytechnic University, Xi’an 710048, China
Interests: evaporative cooling; heat transfer and air conditioning
Assoc. Prof. Suoying He
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
Interests: evaporative cooling; cooling tower; heat transfer enhancement and energy conservation
Assoc. Prof. Lucas Miralles Manuel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Avda. de la Universidad, s/n, 03202 Elche, Spain
Interests: evaporative cooling; cooling tower and heat transfer enhancement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

"The Belt and Road Initiative" is a development strategy started by the Chinese government in 2013. It refers to the New Silk Road Economic Belt, which will link China with Europe through Central and Western Asia, and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, which will connect China with Southeast Asian countries, Africa and Europe. Neither the belt nor the road follows any clear line geographically speaking; they serve more as a road map for how China wants to further integrate itself into the world economy and strengthen its influence in these regions.

"The Belt and Road Initiative" also brings new opportunities and challenges to the industry of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, especially to evaporative cooling technology. To this end, the 1st 'The Belt and Road Initiative' International Conference on Sustainable Refrigeration and Air Conditioning is to be launched.
This scientific meeting aims to meet the new challenges and opportunities brought to refrigeration and air conditioning industry by 'The Belt and Road Initiative', and we hope the conference will bring exclusive opportunities for all the participants. The policy-makers, the designers, researchers, engineers and managers from China and the countries along the Belt and Road Initiative will be invited to exchange their valuable works and experience in sustainable refrigeration and air conditioning technologies.

Dr. Kamel Hooman
Prof. Xiang Huang
Assoc. Prof. Suoying He
Assoc. Prof. Lucas Miralles Manuel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Evaporative Cooling
  • Green Building and Sustainable Air Conditioning
  • The Applications of Heat Recovery Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  • Energy Utilization and Haze Reduction
  • Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning and Regional Development
  • Computer Simulation and Optimal Design of Air Conditioning Systems and Devices
  • Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Standards
  • New Heating Technologies

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Performance Comparison between Selected Evaporative Air Coolers
Energies 2017, 10(4), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10040577 - 22 Apr 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine which of the heat exchangers is characterized by the highest efficiency in different applications. Various types of evaporative air coolers were compared: a typical counter-flow unit, the same unit operating as a heat recovery exchanger, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine which of the heat exchangers is characterized by the highest efficiency in different applications. Various types of evaporative air coolers were compared: a typical counter-flow unit, the same unit operating as a heat recovery exchanger, a regenerative unit and a novel, modified regenerative exchanger. The analysis includes comparing the work of evaporative heat exchangers during summer and winter season. The analysis is based on the original mathematical models. The numerical models are based on the modified ε-NTU (number of heat transfer units) method. It was established that selected arrangements of the presented exchangers are characterized by the different efficiency in different air-conditioning applications. The analysis faces the main construction aspects of those evaporative coolers and also compares two above-mentioned devices with modified regenerative air cooler, which can partly operate on cooled outdoor airflow and on the exhaust air from conditioned spaces. This solution can be applied in any climate and it is less dependent on the outdoor conditions. The second part of the study focuses on winter season and the potential of recovering heat with the same exchangers, but with dry working air channels. This allows establishing their total potential of generating energy savings during the annual operation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Utilizing Different Natural Cooling Sources to Reduce the Building Cooling Load and Cooling Energy Consumption: A Case Study in Urumqi
Energies 2017, 10(3), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030366 - 15 Mar 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Generally, Central Asia is typical for regions with strong solar radiation and various natural cooling sources. The heat gain from the building envelope accounts for a large part of the cooling load there. Thus, the pipe-embedded envelope is receiving attention as a semi-active [...] Read more.
Generally, Central Asia is typical for regions with strong solar radiation and various natural cooling sources. The heat gain from the building envelope accounts for a large part of the cooling load there. Thus, the pipe-embedded envelope is receiving attention as a semi-active system of utilizing natural energy for cooling. In this study, the performance of the pipe-embedded envelope used in Urumqi is numerically investigated. The energy saving potential regarding evaporative cooling and a ground-source heat exchanger (GSHE) is evaluated over a complete summer. The results show that the built-in pipes can reduce 80% of the solar heat gain through windows, with an effectiveness of around 60%. External windows rather than internal windows should be insulated because the air cavity is cool. With respect to the pipe-embedded wall, it becomes a radiant cooling panel absorbing the heat from the room, with an effectiveness around 83%. The seasonal cooling energy is decreased by 25%–50% in a typical office with a pipe-embedded envelope. Offices with a large window-to-wall ratio are acceptable because natural cooling is employed. GSHE performs the best among the selected sources. The effectiveness of evaporative cooling is also satisfactory, with an energy saving rate of 27%. Overall, the pipe-embedded system is suitable for climatic regions like Urumqi. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Design and Feasibility of a Heating System with Energy Storage by Pebble Bed in a Solar Attic
Energies 2017, 10(3), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030328 - 08 Mar 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
For efficient application of solar energy, a pebble bed energy storage heating system in a solar attic is optimally designed and operated. To study the characteristics of the heating system, a numerical model for the system is presented and is validated with the [...] Read more.
For efficient application of solar energy, a pebble bed energy storage heating system in a solar attic is optimally designed and operated. To study the characteristics of the heating system, a numerical model for the system is presented and is validated with the experiment data in the literature. Based on the model, the influence of the envelopes of the solar house and the meteorological condition on the system performance is investigated. The results show that the envelopes, except those on the north face, with more glazed exterior surfaces can be beneficial to raise the temperature of the solar house. It is also found that outdoor temperature may have less impact on the energy storage in the system compared with solar radiation. Furthermore, through optimizing the system design and operation, solar energy can account for 56% of the energy requirement in the heating season in Xi’an (about 34° N, 108° E), which has an average altitude of 397.5 m and moderate solar irradiation. Also, the suitability of the system in northwest China is investigated, and the outcome demonstrates that the external comprehensive temperature should be more than 269 K if a 50% energy saving rate is expected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimum Design and Operation of an HVAC Cooling Tower for Energy and Water Conservation
Energies 2017, 10(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030299 - 03 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
The energy consumption increase in the last few years has contributed to developing energy efficiency policies in many countries, the main goal of which is decreasing CO 2 emissions. One of the reasons for this increment has been caused by the use of [...] Read more.
The energy consumption increase in the last few years has contributed to developing energy efficiency policies in many countries, the main goal of which is decreasing CO 2 emissions. One of the reasons for this increment has been caused by the use of air conditioning systems due to new comfort standards. In that regard, cooling towers and evaporative condensers are presented as efficient devices that operate with low-level water temperature. Moreover, the energy consumption and the cost of the equipment are lower than other systems like air condensers at the same operation conditions. This work models an air conditioning system in TRNSYS software, the main elements if which are a cooling tower, a water-water chiller and a reference building. The cooling tower model is validated using experimental data in a pilot plant. The main objective is to implement an optimizing control strategy in order to reduce both energy and water consumption. Furthermore a comparison between three typical methods of capacity control is carried out. Additionally, different cooling tower configurations are assessed, involving six drift eliminators and two water distribution systems. Results show the influence of optimizing the control strategy and cooling tower configuration, with a maximum energy savings of 10.8% per story and a reduction of 4.8% in water consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Facility to Validate Ground Source Heat Pump Optimisation Models for the Australian Climate
Energies 2017, 10(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010138 - 22 Jan 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are one of the most widespread forms of geothermal energy technology. They utilise the near-constant temperature of the ground below the frost line to achieve energy-efficiencies two or three times that of conventional air-conditioners, consequently allowing a significant [...] Read more.
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are one of the most widespread forms of geothermal energy technology. They utilise the near-constant temperature of the ground below the frost line to achieve energy-efficiencies two or three times that of conventional air-conditioners, consequently allowing a significant offset in electricity demand for space heating and cooling. Relatively mature GSHP markets are established in Europe and North America. GSHP implementation in Australia, however, is limited, due to high capital price, uncertainties regarding optimum designs for the Australian climate, and limited consumer confidence in the technology. Existing GSHP design standards developed in the Northern Hemisphere are likely to lead to suboptimal performance in Australia where demand might be much more cooling-dominated. There is an urgent need to develop Australia’s own GSHP system optimisation principles on top of the industry standards to provide confidence to bring the GSHP market out of its infancy. To assist in this, the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE) has commissioned a fully instrumented GSHP experimental facility in Gatton, Australia, as a publically-accessible demonstration of the technology and a platform for systematic studies of GSHPs, including optimisation of design and operations. This paper presents a brief review on current GSHP use in Australia, the technical details of the Gatton GSHP facility, and an analysis on the observed cooling performance of this facility to date. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Performance for Wet Cooling Tower with Different Layout Patterns of Fillings under Typical Crosswind Conditions
Energies 2017, 10(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010065 - 06 Jan 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
A thermal-state model experimental study was performed in lab to investigate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower with different kinds of filling layout patterns under windless and 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions. In this paper, the contrast analysis was focused on comparing [...] Read more.
A thermal-state model experimental study was performed in lab to investigate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower with different kinds of filling layout patterns under windless and 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions. In this paper, the contrast analysis was focused on comparing a uniform layout pattern and one kind of optimal non-uniform layout pattern when the environmental crosswind speed is 0 m/s and 0.4 m/s. The experimental results proved that under windless conditions, the heat transfer coefficient and total heat rejection of circulating water for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern can enhance by approximately 40% and 28%, respectively, compared with the uniform layout pattern. It was also discovered that the optimal non-uniform pattern can dramatically relieve the influence of crosswind on the thermal performance of the tower when the crosswind speed is equal to 0.4 m/s. For the uniform layout pattern, the heat transfer coefficient under 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions decreased by 9.5% compared with the windless conditions, while that value lowered only by 2.0% for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern. It has been demonstrated that the optimal non-uniform layout pattern has the better thermal performance under 0.4 m/s crosswind condition. Full article
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