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Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "F1: Electrical Power System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2022) | Viewed by 12859

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Technology and Innovations, University of Vaasa, P.O.Box 700, FI-65101 Vaasa, Finland
Interests: modeling and simulation; power system protection; smart grid communication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The protection systems of modern grids are facing new challenges and opportunities due to the development towards future Smart Grids. The complexity of the system increases when the share of distributed renewable energy sources increases. Simultaneously, the new communication technologies enable new kinds of solutions for protection. The IEC 61850 standard has been established enabling seamless communication between IEDs (intelligent electronic devices). It is widely accepted in the field, but there are still challenges in practical implementation. Furthermore, the recent revisions of the standard are enabling new applications reaching beyond traditional substation automation. When developing advanced novel solutions, the basic requirements of protection should be kept in mind: reliability, selectivity, stability, speed, and sensitivity. Evaluation of these aspects might also be a challenge in a modern complex system.

This Special Issue invites original papers addressing the various topics relating to digital protection and communication techniques applied in modern grids. A wide variety of contributions is welcomed ranging from new protection methods and algorithms to cybersecurity solutions.

Prof. Dr. Kimmo Kauhaniemi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Adaptive protection
  • Cybersecurity
  • IEC 61850
  • Merging units
  • Protection functions
  • Protection system testing
  • Smart grids and distributed generation
  • Time synchronization
  • Wide area protection
  • Wireless communication

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 151 KiB  
Editorial
Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems
by Kimmo Kauhaniemi
Energies 2023, 16(5), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16052304 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 765
Abstract
The protection systems of modern grids are facing new challenges and opportunities due to the development of future Smart Grids [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 13946 KiB  
Article
A Parameter-Free Approach for Fault Section Detection on Distribution Networks Employing Gated Recurrent Unit
by Mohammad Reza Shadi, Hamid Mirshekali, Rahman Dashti, Mohammad-Taghi Ameli and Hamid Reza Shaker
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6361; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196361 - 5 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Faults in distribution networks can result in severe transients, equipment failure, and power outages. The quick and accurate detection of the faulty section enables the operator to avoid prolonged power outages and economic losses by quickly retrieving the network. However, the occurrence of [...] Read more.
Faults in distribution networks can result in severe transients, equipment failure, and power outages. The quick and accurate detection of the faulty section enables the operator to avoid prolonged power outages and economic losses by quickly retrieving the network. However, the occurrence of diverse fault types with various resistances and locations and the highly non-linear nature of distribution networks make fault section detection challenging for numerous conventional techniques. This study presents a cutting-edge deep learning-based algorithm to distinguish fault sections in distribution networks to address these issues. The proposed gated recurrent unit model utilizes only two samples of the angle between the voltage and current on either side of the feeders, which record by smart feeder meters, to detect faulty sections in real time. When a network fault occurs, the protection relays trigger the trip command for the breakers. Immediately, the angle data are obtained from all smart feeder meters of the network, which comprises a pre-fault sample and a post-fault sample. The data are then employed as an input to the pre-trained gated recurrent unit model to determine the faulted line. The performance of this novel algorithm was validated through simulations of various fault types in the IEEE-33 bus system. The model recognizes the faulty section with competitive performance in terms of accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems)
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19 pages, 9033 KiB  
Article
Simulation Verification of Overcurrent Protection Operation in Power Networks Integrating Renewable Energy Sources in Energy Communities
by Mateusz Szablicki, Piotr Rzepka and Adrian Halinka
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082193 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
This publication discusses the risks of further use of classical overcurrent protections in modern power systems. The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources has caused a lot of challenges, among other things, the development of energy communities that balance local generation and consumption. [...] Read more.
This publication discusses the risks of further use of classical overcurrent protections in modern power systems. The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources has caused a lot of challenges, among other things, the development of energy communities that balance local generation and consumption. Usually the interconnection line between the energy community and power systems are only used to balance the shortage or overflow of energy. As a result, most of the time these connections can be low loaded. Such a state can cause incorrect operation of power system protection approached, because the current level values are smaller than the required activation level for the protections. This article presents the potential incorrect operation of digital power system protection with overcurrent function. The obtained simulation results clearly show that the correctness of protection operation is strongly dependent on the level load of lines and the parameters and structure of the protection decision algorithms. These problems occur during low load line periods because these were not taken into account during the classical digital protection design stage. In the future this can cause problems with the fulfillment of the basic protection requirements of stability, speed, sensitivity. This publication suggests extra problems for power system protection research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems)
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10 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
Non-Directional Earth Fault Passage Indication in Isolated Neutral Distribution Networks
by Amir Farughian, Lauri Kumpulainen and Kimmo Kauhaniemi
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4732; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184732 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
In this paper, two new methods for locating single-phase to ground faults in isolated neutral distribution networks are proposed. The methods are based on the analysis of symmetrical sequence currents. They are solely based on currents, not requiring voltage measurement. The first method [...] Read more.
In this paper, two new methods for locating single-phase to ground faults in isolated neutral distribution networks are proposed. The methods are based on the analysis of symmetrical sequence currents. They are solely based on currents, not requiring voltage measurement. The first method employs only the zero sequence current and the second one utilizes the negative sequence current in combination with the zero sequence current. It is revealed why using only zero sequence current with a simple threshold is insufficient and may lead to false results. Using the proposed methods, earth faults with high resistances can be located in isolated neutral distribution networks with overhead lines or cables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems)
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15 pages, 4704 KiB  
Article
High Impedance Fault Detection and Location in Combined Overhead Line and Underground Cable Distribution Networks Equipped with Data Loggers
by Saeid Khavari, Rahman Dashti, Hamid Reza Shaker and Athila Santos
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092331 - 7 May 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Power distribution networks are vulnerable to different faults, which compromise the grid performance and need to be managed effectively. Automatic and accurate fault detection and location are key components of effective fault management. This paper proposes a new framework for fault detection and [...] Read more.
Power distribution networks are vulnerable to different faults, which compromise the grid performance and need to be managed effectively. Automatic and accurate fault detection and location are key components of effective fault management. This paper proposes a new framework for fault detection and location for smart distribution networks that are equipped with data loggers. The framework supports networks with mixed overhead lines and underground cables. The proposed framework consists of area detection, faulty section identification, and high impedance fault location. Firstly, the faulty zone and section are detected based on the operation of over-current relays and digital fault recorders. Then, by comparing the recorded traveling times at both ends of lines, which are related to the protection zone, the faulty line is identified. In the last step, the location of the fault is estimated based on discrete wavelet transform. The proposed method is tested on a 20 kV 13 node network, which is composed of overhead lines and underground cables. The method is tested in both balanced and unbalanced configurations. The obtained results confirm the advantages of the proposed method compared with the current state-of-the art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems)
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17 pages, 4424 KiB  
Article
The Communication System and its Impacts on Line Current Differential Protection in Distributed Feeder Automation
by Yilong Duan, Longfu Luo, Yong Li and Yijia Cao
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061298 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
As one of the core technologies of distributed feeder automation (DFA), line current differential protection (LCDP) can locate faults quickly and accurately and have the ability to cope with multi-directional flow. However, LCDP algorithm has high requirements for communication speed, and is sensitive [...] Read more.
As one of the core technologies of distributed feeder automation (DFA), line current differential protection (LCDP) can locate faults quickly and accurately and have the ability to cope with multi-directional flow. However, LCDP algorithm has high requirements for communication speed, and is sensitive to communication quality. In order to apply the LCDP algorithm to a real project, the communication system and its impacts on LCDP need to be studied in depth. In this paper, the design method of a communication system for LCDP, including communication mode, topology, communication protocol, and synchronization, is analyzed in detail. For better parameter determination, the communication models are investigated, and the impact of time delay, data loss, and jitter on LCDP are discussed. Further, the distribution network based on a real project is built in a cyber-physical co-simulation environment, and the impact of electrical fails and communication fails on LCDP are studied. The results show that the design method and parameters determination method proposed in this paper are effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection and Communication Techniques in Modern Power Systems)
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