Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities

A special issue of Electricity (ISSN 2673-4826).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 35043

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: power electronics; power converters; electric vehicles; renewables; pulse-width-modulation; harmonic pollution
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, innovations like renewable energy sources (RES), distributed generation, intelligent and sustainable transport, and the internet of things (IoT) have started to produce a change of paradigm that is destined to persist in the coming decades. Power systems and urban environments are shifting toward smarter, data-driven, dynamic, and highly integrated solutions recognizable under the broad classifications known as smart grids and smart cities. Issues related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are a well-known topic that every system should overcome during each development stage and technology readiness level (TRL). For this reason, many regulations and design guidelines have been published and are expected to be updated by the most important engineering bodies.

This Special Issue proposes to collect advancements related to electromagnetic pollution computation, estimation, and measurement due to (but not limited to) overhead power lines, over- and underground cables, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations (including wireless charging systems), electrical mass transit systems, RES electronic power converters, energy storage systems (ESS), electric machines, and plants in general. Further, relevant topics could be the evaluation approaches, detection processes, the mitigation of electromagnetic interference (EMI), as well as high- and low-frequency fields exposure in pipelines, vehicle and transportation systems, and sensing and communication networks.

Scholars, academic scientists, researchers, Ph.D. students, and professional groups are invited to submit original contributions, including post-conference papers, supported by numerical and/or experimental validation concerning these subjects. 

Prof. Dr. Gabriele Grandi
Dr. Riccardo Mandrioli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electricity is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
  • Electromagnetic pollution
  • Low-frequency magnetic field exposure
  • High-frequency magnetic field exposure
  • Smart grids
  • Smart cities
  • Finite element method (FEM)
  • Electric vehicles and battery chargers
  • Charging stations for electric vehicles
  • Trains and electrical railway systems
  • Renewable energy sources (RES)
  • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
  • Power systems
  • Power lines and power cables
  • Transformers
  • Magnetic fields and stray/leakage magnetic fields
  • Windings and coils
  • Power electronic converters

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 6851 KiB  
Article
Procedure for Verifying Population Exposure Limits to the Magnetic Field from Double-Circuit Overhead Power Lines
by Marco Landini, Giovanni Mazzanti and Riccardo Mandrioli
Electricity 2021, 2(3), 342-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030021 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2943
Abstract
The verification of the limits of the population’s exposure to the magnetic field generated by double-circuit power lines from field measurements carried out on site is not trivial. It requires knowledge of the power line current instant values during the measurement period, the [...] Read more.
The verification of the limits of the population’s exposure to the magnetic field generated by double-circuit power lines from field measurements carried out on site is not trivial. It requires knowledge of the power line current instant values during the measurement period, the determination of the relationship between current and field at the measurement points (made more complex by the double-circuit overhead line configuration) and the use of that relationship to extrapolate the field values. Nevertheless, the verification of exposure limits for double-circuit power lines from on-site measurements is often conducted with rough, or not particularly stringent, procedures. A practical and straightforward procedure of general validity for non-optimized double-circuit lines is proposed here. No specific measurement position or conductors disposition knowledge is required as well as no complex three-dimensional finite element method code is necessary. The procedure, potentially also applicable to high- and extra-high-voltage lines, is validated on a medium-voltage (15 kV) double-circuit overhead power line study case. Exposure limits assessment suggests that if the line is operated at its rated capacity (230/285 A), the 3 μT quality target is missed. Results are provided with a 95% confidence interval ranging from ±100 nT to ±140 nT in all the cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities)
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14 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Reduction in the Electromagnetic Interference Generated by AC Overhead Power Lines on Buried Metallic Pipelines with Screening Conductors
by Arturo Popoli, Leonardo Sandrolini and Andrea Cristofolini
Electricity 2021, 2(3), 316-329; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030019 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3009
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical study on the reduction in the voltage and current induced on a 13.5 km buried metallic pipeline by an overhead power line. The mitigation effectiveness of different configurations and cross-section shapes of screening conductors is computed by means [...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical study on the reduction in the voltage and current induced on a 13.5 km buried metallic pipeline by an overhead power line. The mitigation effectiveness of different configurations and cross-section shapes of screening conductors is computed by means of a methodology that combines a 2D Finite Element Analysis with circuital analysis. A 35.72% reduction of the maximum induced voltage is obtained when 4 cylindrical steel screening conductors with 8 mm radius are buried 0.25m below the soil surface, along the pipeline path. The maximum induced pipeline current is reduced by 26.98%. A parametric study is also performed, to assess the influence of the per-unit-length admittance to earth of the screening conductors on the mitigation efficacy. The results show that screening conductors may help in reducing the inductive coupling between overhead power lines and buried metallic pipelines, and that the assumption of perfectly insulated screening conductors leads to an underestimation of the produced mitigation effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities)
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16 pages, 3531 KiB  
Article
A Methodology to Analyze and Evaluate the Uncertainty Propagation due to Temperature and Frequency and Design Optimization for EMC Testing Instrumentation
by Marco Bosi, Albert-Miquel Sánchez, Francisco Javier Pajares and Lorenzo Peretto
Electricity 2021, 2(3), 300-315; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030018 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2934
Abstract
This paper presents a study and proposes a new methodology to analyze, evaluate and reduce the overall uncertainty of instrumentations for EMC measurements. For the scope of this work, the front end of a commercial EMI receiver is chosen and variations due to [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study and proposes a new methodology to analyze, evaluate and reduce the overall uncertainty of instrumentations for EMC measurements. For the scope of this work, the front end of a commercial EMI receiver is chosen and variations due to tolerances, temperature and frequency response of the system are evaluated. This paper illustrates in detail how to treat each block composing the model by analyzing each discrete component, and how to evaluate their influence on the measurand. Since a model can have hundreds or even thousands of parameters, the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of some variable might be unknown. So, a method that allows to obtain in a fast and easy way the uncertainty of the measurement despite having so many variables, to then being able to evaluate the influence of each component on the measurand, is necessary for a correct design. In this way, it will be possible to indicate which discrete components have the most influence on the measurand and thus set the maximum tolerances allowed and being able to design a cost-effective solution. Furthermore, this works presents a methodology which can easily be extended and applied to estimate and compute the uncertainty for electromagnetic interferences, energy storage systems (ESS), energy production, electric machines, electric transports and power plants in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities)
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12 pages, 1708 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Conductor Positioning on Low-Power Current Transformers: Inputs for the Next IEC 61869-10
by Alessandro Mingotti, Lorenzo Peretto and Roberto Tinarelli
Electricity 2021, 2(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2010001 - 5 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3709
Abstract
Low-power instrument transformers (LPITs) are spreading among the distribution network thanks to their features (e.g., compactness, lightness, enhanced bandwidth, etc.). It is then a fundamental to guide users and manufacturers to a correct usage and manufacturing of the LPITs. Technical committees, which are [...] Read more.
Low-power instrument transformers (LPITs) are spreading among the distribution network thanks to their features (e.g., compactness, lightness, enhanced bandwidth, etc.). It is then a fundamental to guide users and manufacturers to a correct usage and manufacturing of the LPITs. Technical committees, which are in charge of writing dedicated standards, often tackle such a task. Focusing on the current type of LPITs, the low-power current transformers (LPCTs), the associated standard is the IEC 61869-10, which is going to be improved in 2021. To this purpose, the work aims at providing new inputs for the future version of such a standard. In particular, the focus is pointed towards the effects of the conductor positioning on the window-type LPCT accuracy. Literature and gained experience in the field are the two pillars that have been used to refine the outcomes of the work, which are provided in terms of suggestions for each technical aspect, as discussed in the standard, related to LPCTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities)
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Review

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31 pages, 2920 KiB  
Review
Identification of Potential Barriers to Electric Vehicle Adoption in Oil-Producing Nations—The Case of Saudi Arabia
by Saleh Alotaibi, Siddig Omer and Yuehong Su
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 365-395; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030020 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 8528
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are important elements in the global strategy to tackle climate change; however, research often fails to sufficiently identify the range of barriers which affect their adoption. Taking Saudi Arabia as a case study, this paper analyses responses from 698 potential [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are important elements in the global strategy to tackle climate change; however, research often fails to sufficiently identify the range of barriers which affect their adoption. Taking Saudi Arabia as a case study, this paper analyses responses from 698 potential drivers in order to identify and rank the infrastructure, performance, financial, social, and policy barriers to EV adoption in a major oil-producing nation with a hot climate and a desert terrain. According to this study’s findings, the most important barriers in this context are the lack of charging infrastructure and the additional load placed on the national grid, while others include the safety and effectiveness of batteries at high temperatures, and the ability of EVs to perform in desert conditions. Common themes also include concerns that EVs may damage Saudi’s oil-based economy, cost of purchase and maintenance, low resale value, and the absence of awareness about EVs. The study concludes that EV manufacturers must demonstrate that their vehicles are suitable for the Saudi climate. Governments should also provide subsidies, or other incentives, to promote adoption of EVs as the study also found that variations in the cost of different EV models in Saudi Arabia, for example, the Tesla Model 3, is up to 40% more expensive to own than a Toyota Camry, mean that owning EVs can cost significantly more than small sized internal combustion engine-based vehicles (ICEVs). This paper identifies and ranks the barriers to EV ownership in a desert nation which is a leading petroleum producer and compares the relative costs of EVs and ICEVs in the country. As such, it has immediate relevance in countries with similar economic, geographic, and climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities)
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29 pages, 5002 KiB  
Review
Thermoelectric Power Generators: State-of-the-Art, Heat Recovery Method, and Challenges
by Rima Aridi, Jalal Faraj, Samer Ali, Thierry Lemenand and Mahmoud Khaled
Electricity 2021, 2(3), 359-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030022 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 12155
Abstract
Electricity plays a significant role in daily life and is the main component of countless applications. Thus, ongoing research is necessary to improve the existing approaches, or find new approaches, to enhancing power generation. The thermoelectric generator (TEG) is among the notable and [...] Read more.
Electricity plays a significant role in daily life and is the main component of countless applications. Thus, ongoing research is necessary to improve the existing approaches, or find new approaches, to enhancing power generation. The thermoelectric generator (TEG) is among the notable and widespread technologies used to produce electricity, and converts waste energy into electrical energy using the Seebeck effect. Due to the Seebeck effect, temperature change can be turned into electrical energy; hence, a TEG can be applied whenever there is a temperature difference. The present paper presents the theoretical background of the TEG, in addition to a comprehensive review of the TEG and its implementation in various fields. This paper also sheds light on the new technologies of the TEG and their related challenges. Notably, it was found that the TEG is efficient in hybrid heat recovery systems, such as the phase change material (PCM), heat pipe (HP), and proton exchange membrane (PEM), and the efficiency of the TEG has increased due to a set of improvements in the TEG’s materials. Moreover, results show that the TEG technology has been frequently applied in recent years, and all of the investigated papers agree that the TEG is a promising technology in power generation and heat recovery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities)
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