Special Issue "Infectious Disease Epidemiology II"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 7695

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Amal K. Mitra
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Fernando Monroy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, USA
Interests: microbiology; immunology; infectious diseases; host-pathogen interactions; genomics; proteomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many developing countries are facing an enormous burden of infectious diseases, including diarrhea, malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Although vaccines have conquered most infectious diseases, newer and emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola fever, SERS coronavirus disease, MARS, Nipah virus, Hantavirus, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, West Nile virus infection, etc. are still causing public health threats worldwide. Climate change and global warming are increasing the likelihood and spread of many vector-borne diseases, including malaria, Dengue fever, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and trypanosomiasis. Over time, many infectious organisms have adapted to the drugs designed to kill them, making the agents resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials. Improper medication or self-medication is often a factor causing this drug resistance. There is a growing need to identify populations at risk, social and environmental factors, and economic burden to prioritize resources. Mathematical modeling and the application of GIS are also important tools in the prediction of infectious diseases, the identification of at-risk populations, and the evaluation of interventions. This Special Issue on “Infectious Disease Epidemiology” will cover original articles and review articles related to the global burden of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, emerging diseases, social aspects and the economic burden of diseases, laboratory identification, clinical trials, community interventions, GIS application, and mathematical models. The Editorial Office is also considering the publication of a book and a free copy of the book to the contributing authors once this Special Issue of the journal is published.

Prof. Dr. Amal K. Mitra
Prof. Dr. Fernando Monroy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diseases is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • infectious diseases
  • global burden
  • disability-adjusted life years (DALY)
  • risk factors
  • community interventions
  • clinical trials
  • laboratory studies
  • drug resistance
  • GIS applications
  • cost-effective analysis
  • vaccine
  • mathematical models
  • social epidemiology

Related Special Issue

Infectious Disease Epidemiology in /Diseases/ (11 articles)

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Association of Sociodemographic Factors with Tuberculosis Outcomes in Mississippi
Diseases 2023, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11010025 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In the US, the national incidence of reported TB cases was 2.16 per 100,000 persons in 2020 and 2.37 per 100,000 persons in 2021. Furthermore, TB disproportionately affects minorities. Specifically, in 2018, [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In the US, the national incidence of reported TB cases was 2.16 per 100,000 persons in 2020 and 2.37 per 100,000 persons in 2021. Furthermore, TB disproportionately affects minorities. Specifically, in 2018, 87% of reported TB cases occurred in racial and ethnic minorities in Mississippi. Data from TB patients from the Mississippi Department of Health (2011–2020) were used to examine the association between sociodemographic subgroups (race, age, place of birth, gender, homelessness, and alcohol use) with TB outcome variables. Of the 679 patients with active TB cases in Mississippi, 59.53% were Black, and 40.47% were White. The mean age was 46 ± ten years; 65.1% were male, and 34.9% were female. Among patients with previous TB infections, 70.8% were Black, and 29.2% were White. The rate of previous TB cases was significantly higher among US-born (87.5%) persons compared with non-US-born persons (12.5%). The study suggested that sociodemographic factors play a significant role in TB outcome variables. This research will help public health professionals to develop an effective TB intervention program that addresses sociodemographic factors in Mississippi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology II)
Article
On Spatiotemporal Overdispersion and Macroparasite Accumulation in Hosts Leading to Aggregation: A Quantitative Framework
Diseases 2023, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11010004 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 556
Abstract
In many host–parasite systems, overdispersion in the distribution of macroparasites leads to parasite aggregation in the host population. This overdispersed distribution is often characterized by the negative binomial or by the power law. The aggregation is shown by a clustering of parasites in [...] Read more.
In many host–parasite systems, overdispersion in the distribution of macroparasites leads to parasite aggregation in the host population. This overdispersed distribution is often characterized by the negative binomial or by the power law. The aggregation is shown by a clustering of parasites in certain hosts, while other hosts have few or none. Here, I present a theory behind the overdispersion in complex spatiotemporal systems as well as a computational analysis for tracking the behavior of transmissible diseases with this kind of dynamics. I present a framework where heterogeneity and complexity in host–parasite systems are related to aggregation. I discuss the problem of focusing only on the average parasite burden without observing the risk posed by the associated variance; the consequences of under- or overestimation of disease transmission in a heterogenous system and environment; the advantage of including the network of social interaction in epidemiological modeling; and the implication of overdispersion in the management of health systems during outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Impact of Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and the Various COVID-19 Variant Types on All-Cause Mortality: A Case-Series Retrospective Study
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040100 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 803
Abstract
(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly evolved into a pandemic affecting virtually every country in the world. We evaluated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and all-cause mortality of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly evolved into a pandemic affecting virtually every country in the world. We evaluated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and all-cause mortality of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Oman during the different COVID-19 waves and variant types. (2) Methods: A case-series retrospective study was carried out between 12 March 2020 and 30 June 2022. All adults over the age of 18 with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistics. (3) Results: A total of 1462 confirmed cases enrolled with the mean age of the cohort was 55 ± 17 years with significant differences among the groups (p = 0.006). A total of 63% and 80% of the patients were males and citizens of Oman, respectively. Patients infected with the Alpha COVID-19 variant type were more likely to have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (p < 0.001), stay longer in the hospital (p < 0.001), and get admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (p < 0.001). At the same time, those who had the Omicron COVID-19 type were more likely to have renal impairment (p < 0.001) and less likely to be associated with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (p = 0.001) compared with other COVID-19 variant types. The Delta (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22–2.66; p = 0.003) and Omicron (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI: 1.09–3.22; p = 0.022) COVID-19 variant types were associated with higher all-cause mortality when compared to the initial COVID-19 variant. Old age (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI: 1.04–1.06; p < 0.001), the presence of respiratory disease (aOR, 1.58; 95% CI: 1.02–2.44; p = 0.04), ICU admission (aOR, 3.41; 95% CI: 2.16–5.39; p < 0.001), lower eGFR (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.17–2.23; p = 0.004), and ARDS (aOR, 5.75; 95% CI: 3.69–8.98; p < 0.001) were also associated with higher mortality while NIV requirements were associated with lower odds of dying (aOR, 0.65; 95% CI: 0.46–0.91; p = 0.012). (4) Conclusions: Alpha and Delta variants were associated with a longer hospital stay, need for intensive care, mechanical ventilation, and increased mortality. Old age, cardiac renal dysfunction were commonly associated with Omicron variants. Large-scale national studies to further assess the risk factors for mortality related to COVID-19 waves are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
MALDI-TOF MS for Rapid Analysis of Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infections in the Riyadh Region
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040078 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
The successful treatment of bacterial disease is relied on selecting a suitable drug based on the type of bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The study’s objective was to identify bacterial isolates from urine samples of patients from the community, followed by antimicrobial susceptibility [...] Read more.
The successful treatment of bacterial disease is relied on selecting a suitable drug based on the type of bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The study’s objective was to identify bacterial isolates from urine samples of patients from the community, followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolated bacteria. A total of seventy urine samples were received in the clinical microbiology laboratory; out of which 18 culture-positive cultures and by direct identification using MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) were identified. Of 18 identified bacteria, 17 (94%) were pathogenic. The culture demonstrated that the major species detected in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Aeromonas caviae. E. coli (72.2%) was the most common bacterium retrieved from urine samples followed by K. pneumoniae (16.6%). Interestingly, all the isolates, except Enterococcus faecalis, were resistant to erythromycin. The isolates 8 of 13 (61.5%) were resistant to both of the cotrimoxazole and tetracycline. We performed MLST (Multi-locus Sequence Typing) typing of 13 E. coli isolates to study their genetic relatedness and diversity. MLST typing of E. coli showed a total of nine different STs (Sequence Types), which showed the diversity among them. ST 129 was the most common ST found in three E. coli isolates. In our study, two isolates with ST 1126 and ST 1432 represented the global clonal complex 155. MALDI-TOF MS provided dependable results for identifying the bacteria up to species level from urine samples by indirect culture methods. Such local surveillances are highly recommended for empirical therapy awareness and determining isolates’ level of resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Helicobacter pylori in Native Americans in Northern Arizona
Diseases 2022, 10(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10020019 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Background: In Arizona Helicobacter pylori prevalence of infection among Navajo adults is about 62% and gastric cancer incidence rate is 3–4 times higher than that of the non-Hispanic White population. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of specific [...] Read more.
Background: In Arizona Helicobacter pylori prevalence of infection among Navajo adults is about 62% and gastric cancer incidence rate is 3–4 times higher than that of the non-Hispanic White population. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of specific H. pylori virulence factors (cagA and vacA) among Navajo patients undergoing and their association with gastric disease. Methods: Virulence genes, cagA and vacA, in H. pylori were investigated in gastric biopsies from 96 Navajo patients over age 18 who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Biopsies from the antrum and fundus were used for molecular characterization to determine cagA type and number of EPIYA motifs and presence of alleles in the signal (s) and medium (m) regions of the vacA gene. Results: H. pylori infection was found in 22.9% of the biopsy samples. The cagA gene amplified in 57.6% of samples and showed a predominant “Western cagA” type, with the EPIYA-ABC motif (45.4%), most prevalent. The vacA allele s1bm1 was the most prevalent (54.5%). Conclusions: H. pylori genotypes were predominantly cagA Western-type and ABC EPIYA motifs. The vacA s1bm1 genotype was the most prevalent and seemed to be associated with gastritis. American Indian/Alaska Native populations are at higher risk for gastric cancer. It is important to identify genotypes of H. pylori and virulence factors involved in the high prevalence of H. pylori and associated disease among the Navajo population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Epidemiological Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients with Moderate versus Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Single Centre Study
Diseases 2022, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10010001 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
COVID-19 has a devastating impact worldwide. Recognizing factors that cause its progression is important for the utilization of appropriate resources and improving clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were hospitalized with moderate [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has a devastating impact worldwide. Recognizing factors that cause its progression is important for the utilization of appropriate resources and improving clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were hospitalized with moderate versus severe COVID-19 illness. A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted between 3 March and 9 September 2020. Following the CDC guidelines, a two-category variable for COVID-19 severity (moderate versus severe) based on length of stay, need for intensive care or mechanical ventilation and mortality was developed. Data including demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, therapeutic interventions and clinical outcomes were assessed using descriptive and inferential analysis. A total of 1002 patients were included, the majority were male (n = 646, 64.5%), Omani citizen (n = 770, 76.8%) and with an average age of 54.2 years. At the bivariate level, patients classified as severe were older (Mean = 55.2, SD = 16) than the moderate patients (Mean = 51.5, SD = 15.8). Diabetes mellitus was the only significant comorbidity potential factor that was more prevalent in severe patients than moderate (n = 321, 46.6%; versus n = 178, 42.4%; p < 0.001). Under the laboratory factors; total white cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and corrected calcium were significant. All selected clinical characteristics and therapeutics were significant. At the multivariate level, under demographic factors, only nationality was significant and no significant comorbidity was identified. Three clinical factors were identified, including; sepsis, Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) and requirement of non-invasive ventilation (NIV). CRP and steroids were also identified under laboratory and therapeutic factors, respectively. Overall, our study identified only five factors from a total of eighteen proposed due to their significant values (p < 0.05) from the bivariate analysis. There are noticeable differences in levels of COVID-19 severity among nationalities. All the selected clinical and therapeutic factors were significant, implying that they should be a key priority when assessing severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. An elevated level of CRP may be a valuable early marker in predicting the progression in non-severe patients with COVID-19. Early recognition and intervention of these factors could ease the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and reduce case fatalities as well medical expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Racial Disparities and Common Respiratory Infectious Diseases in Children of the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Diseases 2023, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11010023 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Due to the lack of sufficient data on the relationship between racial disparities and the occurrence of infectious respiratory diseases in children, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the presence of racial gaps in the occurrence of respiratory [...] Read more.
Due to the lack of sufficient data on the relationship between racial disparities and the occurrence of infectious respiratory diseases in children, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the presence of racial gaps in the occurrence of respiratory infectious diseases in children. This study follows the PRISMA flow guidelines for systematic reviews and the standards of meta-analysis for 20 quantitative studies conducted from 2016 to 2022 including 2,184,407 participants. As evidenced from the review, in the U.S., racial disparities are present among children, with Hispanic and Black children carrying the burden of infectious respiratory disease occurrence. Several factors are contributory to these outcomes among Hispanic and Black children, including higher rates of poverty; higher rates of chronic conditions, such as asthma and obesity; and seeking care outside of the home. However, vaccinations can be used to reduce the risk of infection among Black and Hispanic children. Whether a child is very young or a teen, racial disparities are present in occurrence rates of infectious respiratory diseases, with the burden resting among minorities. Therefore, it is important for parents to be aware of the risk of infectious diseases and to be aware of resources, such as vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop