Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals

A special issue of Dairy (ISSN 2624-862X). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy Animal Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 29719

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
Interests: veterinary infectious diseases; veterinary virology; tropical animal health; Bornavirus; coronavirus; morbillivirus; calicivirus; complex infections; respiratory infections; gastrointestinal infections; diagnostics; ruminants

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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Interests: infectious diseases; bacteriology; tuberculosis; mycobacteriology; mycoplasmology; genomics; host-pathogen interactio; diagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dairy animals are producers of nutritious food products worldwide, acting as important contributors of food and nutrition security of human populations. The most common animal species (cattle, sheep, goat, camel, buffalo, yak) and production systems (from smallholders to large commercial farms; specialized dairy breeds or dual-purpose animals) in use vary among regions or countries. Infectious diseases are important challenges in all settings, although with varying impact on production, societal economy, and farmers’ livelihoods. These infections can directly (e.g., by mastitis, high fever, and painful mammary gland lesions in lactating animals) or indirectly affect milk production, by inducing fertility problems, morbidity, and mortality of recruitment animals, among others. In addition, some pathogens can be transmitted to humans, either by direct contact with animals or by consuming food products, and are important threats to public health. 

This Special Issue will welcome scientific contributions in the field of infectious diseases (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, and prions) in dairy animals, including, but not limited to, infection epidemiology, diagnostics, pathogen-host interactions, prevention, treatment, and socioeconomic impact of infectious diseases.

Dr. Jonas Johansson Wensman
Prof. Dr. Ana Marcia de Sá Guimarães
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dairy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • viral diseases
  • bacterial diseases
  • parasitic diseases
  • mycosis
  • prion diseases
  • transboundary animal diseases
  • zoonosis
  • animal health

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of CAE and CLA in Swedish Dairy Goats and Comparison of Serum and Milk as Sampling Material
by Ylva Persson, Ellen Andersson, Jenny Frössling and Jonas Johansson Wensman
Dairy 2022, 3(1), 190-198; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3010015 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) are two infectious diseases affecting goat welfare and production throughout the world. There are no current data regarding their prevalence in Sweden, and the aim of this pilot study was therefore to estimate the occurrence [...] Read more.
Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) are two infectious diseases affecting goat welfare and production throughout the world. There are no current data regarding their prevalence in Sweden, and the aim of this pilot study was therefore to estimate the occurrence in Swedish milk-producing goats, but also to assess the agreement between milk and sera as sample material for diagnosis and to investigate the association between the somatic cell count (SCC) in bulk milk and the occurrence of CAE and CLA. Serum, individual milk, and bulk-tank milk samples were collected from 214 dairy goats in 10 herds. All samples were analysed by ELISA to detect antibodies for CAE and CLA, and 14.6% of the goats were seropositive for CAE, whereas 19.3% of the goats were seropositive for CLA. The agreement between individual milk and serum samples was over 90% for both diseases and individual milk samples can therefore be considered as an alternative material for analysis in a future eradication programme. Based on the limited number of samples, there was also a significant correlation between bulk-milk test results and within-herd seroprevalence for both CAE and CLA. The SCC in bulk-milk samples was measured using a DeLaval cell counter. The medium SCC was 639,000 cells/mL and no association between SCC and CAE or CLA could be found. The results indicate that CAE and CLA are two common diseases in Swedish goat herds, but further studies based on a larger number of herds are needed to draw conclusions about the national prevalence. The results also indicate that milk can be used as a more cost-effective sampling media for diagnosing CAE and CLA compared to serology, which is the standard procedure today. Hopefully, the results can support the establishment of a successful programme to control the diseases, with the ambition to eradicate CAE and CLA in Sweden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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11 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Bovine Norovirus and Nebovirus and Risk Factors of Infection in Swedish Dairy Herds
by Madeleine Tråvén, Charlotte Axén, Anna Svensson, Camilla Björkman and Ulf Emanuelson
Dairy 2022, 3(1), 137-147; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3010011 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
Enteritis is the major cause of mortality in neonatal calves. Diagnostic work to detect the pathogens involved and identification of risk factors for such infections are imperative to improve calf health. Bovine norovirus (BNoV) and nebovirus prevalence was investigated using RT-PCR in 50 [...] Read more.
Enteritis is the major cause of mortality in neonatal calves. Diagnostic work to detect the pathogens involved and identification of risk factors for such infections are imperative to improve calf health. Bovine norovirus (BNoV) and nebovirus prevalence was investigated using RT-PCR in 50 dairy herds in five geographic regions of Sweden. BNoV and nebovirus were found to be common infections in young dairy calves. BNoV was detected in 20% of 250 calves in 48% of the herds. Nebovirus was detected in 5% of the calves in 16% of the herds. Both infections were present in three herds (6%). BNoV-infected calves were younger (median age 7 days) than nebovirus-infected calves (median age 21 days). These infections were not detected in adult cows and young stock over 6 months of age tested in selected herds. Risk factors identified for BNoV infection were a high number of preweaned calves present at the time of sampling, colostrum uptake by suckling the dam only, calf kept in a single pen, and geographic location of herd, while no risk factors for nebovirus infection were identified in the multivariable analysis. Univariable analysis suggested risk factors for nebovirus infection to be geographic location and early separation from the dam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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10 pages, 736 KiB  
Communication
Seroepidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) in Cattle across Three Livestock Pastoral Regions in Kenya
by Isabel Blanco-Penedo, Vincent Obanda, Edward Kingori, Bernard Agwanda, Clas Ahlm and Olivia Wesula Lwande
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 425-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030034 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease, endemic in Africa, with a high case fatality rate. There is no efficient treatment or licensed vaccine. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CCHFV in cattle in extensive grazing systems (both pastoralism [...] Read more.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease, endemic in Africa, with a high case fatality rate. There is no efficient treatment or licensed vaccine. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CCHFV in cattle in extensive grazing systems (both pastoralism and ranching) within the Maasai Mara ecosystem, Nanyuki, and the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. We conducted a seroepidemiological study of the sera of 148 cattle from 18 households from the three ecosystems in 2014, 2016, and 2019. Sera from 23 sheep and 17 goats were also obtained from the same households during the same period. Sera were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to CCHFV using the commercially available double-antigen ELISA kit. Overall, 31.5% CCHFV seropositivity was observed. The prevalence of CCHF was analyzed using a multiple logistic mixed model with main predictors. Risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV were age (p = 0.000) and season (p = 0.007). Our findings suggest exposure to CCHFV and point to cattle as likely reservoirs of CCHFV in Kenya. The findings might play a role in providing better insights into disease risk and dynamics where analysis of tick populations in these regions should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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11 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Leptospira interrogans Serovar Hardjo Seroprevalence and Farming Practices on Small-Scale Dairy Farms in North Eastern India; Insights Gained from a Cross-Sectional Study
by Eithne Leahy, Rajeswari Shome, Ram P. Deka, Delia Grace, Swati Sahay and Johanna F. Lindahl
Dairy 2021, 2(2), 231-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2020020 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3284
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of major public health concern in India. Bovines play an important role in maintaining and transmitting this disease and proximity between dairy cows and humans makes the dairy cow-human nexus a transmission route of public health interest, yet [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of major public health concern in India. Bovines play an important role in maintaining and transmitting this disease and proximity between dairy cows and humans makes the dairy cow-human nexus a transmission route of public health interest, yet one currently under-examined in North Eastern India. We report a cross-sectional survey carried out on small-scale dairy farms in the states of Assam and Bihar in North Eastern India investigating seroprevalence for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo, the most common pathogenic serovar reported in cattle worldwide. Higher seroprevalence was reported on dairy farms in Bihar 4.5% (95% CI 2.6–7.5%) than in Assam 1.2% (95% CI 0.42–3.6%), but overall seroprevalence levels were low. The study is the first indication of leptospirosis circulating in small-scale dairy farms in these states. To correlate farming practices with zoonotic risk, we combined results from a dairy farmer questionnaire with cow seroprevalence. However, low seroprevalence levels found in this study made the identification of risk factors difficult. Nevertheless, poor farming practices around hygiene and biosecurity on dairy farms have been highlighted. Implementing simple measures could mitigate environmental contamination, and therefore, reduce the risk of Leptospira interrogans, and other zoonoses transmission, at the animal-environment-human interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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6 pages, 598 KiB  
Communication
No Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Dairy Goats
by Ylva Persson, Stefan Börjesson, Mattias Myrenås and Karl Pedersen
Dairy 2021, 2(1), 65-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2010005 - 23 Jan 2021
Viewed by 3365
Abstract
This short communication addresses the hypothesis that the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is low in dairy goats in Sweden. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a widespread zoonotic bacterium of clinical importance in both animals and humans. In Sweden, MRSA is rare among [...] Read more.
This short communication addresses the hypothesis that the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is low in dairy goats in Sweden. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a widespread zoonotic bacterium of clinical importance in both animals and humans. In Sweden, MRSA is rare among both animals and humans. However, MRSA has been detected in a few goat herds in Sweden with a high within-herd occurrence of mecC-MRSA, but only a limited number of herds were investigated and most of them were not producing milk for human consumption. The prevalence of MRSA among dairy goat herds in Sweden is not known and a cross-sectional prevalence study was therefore conducted. A total of 22 bulk milk samples from the same number of herds, and pooled swabs from nose, mouth, and perineum from 113 goats, were collected during August and September 2019 for bacteriological investigation. After culturing on selective media, suspected isolates were confirmed as S. aureus using MALDI-TOF and subjected to PCR targeting the mecA and mecC genes to confirm MRSA status. No samples were found to be positive for MRSA, and there are therefore no indications of a spread of MRSA in Swedish dairy goat herds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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Review

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12 pages, 1074 KiB  
Review
Lameness in Dairy Cow Herds: Disease Aetiology, Prevention and Management
by Mary Garvey
Dairy 2022, 3(1), 199-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3010016 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 9083
Abstract
As livestock production systems have changed to intensive commercial structures to meet the increasing demand for animal-based products, there has been an increase in food production diseases, subsequently resulting in animal welfare issues. After mastitis and infertility, lameness is one of the three [...] Read more.
As livestock production systems have changed to intensive commercial structures to meet the increasing demand for animal-based products, there has been an increase in food production diseases, subsequently resulting in animal welfare issues. After mastitis and infertility, lameness is one of the three major issues affecting dairy cattle globally, resulting in reduced productivity, economic losses, and animal welfare problems. Lameness is associated with reduced milk yield, lack of weight gain, poor fertility, and frequently, animal culling. Environmental (temperature, humidity) and animal risk factors contribute to disease severity, making this multifaceted disease difficult to eradicate and control. As such, prevalence rates of lameness in dairy herds ranges from 17% to 35% globally. Clinical lameness is often treated with antibiotic therapy, which is undesirable in food-producing animals, as outlined in the One Health and the European Farm to Fork food sustainability goals. Lameness is not a single disease in dairy cows but is the manifestation a range of issues, making lameness control one of the greatest challenges in dairy farming. Lameness prevention, therefore, must be a key focus of farm management and sustainable food production. There is an urgent need to establish farm-level aetiology of disease, promote the recognition of lameness, and implement effective control measures to lower incidence and transmission of disease within herds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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14 pages, 7804 KiB  
Review
Deciphering Molecular Dynamics of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV): A Looming Threat to Pakistan’s Dairy Industry
by Muhammad Abubakar, Zainab Syed, Shumaila Manzoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed
Dairy 2022, 3(1), 123-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3010010 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
Milk is seen as a chief source of protein and other biologically available nutrients for human beings. Pakistan, the fourth largest milk-producing country, is badly affected by the contagious transboundary apthoviral disease of ungulate animals; the foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus. FMD [...] Read more.
Milk is seen as a chief source of protein and other biologically available nutrients for human beings. Pakistan, the fourth largest milk-producing country, is badly affected by the contagious transboundary apthoviral disease of ungulate animals; the foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus. FMD is endemic in Pakistan and has caused significant economic loss to the dairy industry in the form of a profound decrease in milk production and increased morbidity and deaths of dairy animals. Inclusively, the case fatality ratio of FMD was 15.11%. Of the seven FMDV serotypes, (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3), three serotypes (O, A, and Asia-1) are endemic in Pakistan. Rapid and highly sensitive diagnostic tools are required for efficient control of this disease. Presently, FMD in the laboratory is diagnosed via ELISA and molecular approaches, i.e., RT-PCR. Serotype-specific RT-PCR analysis not only confirms ELISA serotyping results but can also be used for the screening of ELISA negative samples. Genotypically, FMDV serotype O has a topotype (Middle East–South Asia (ME–SA) and lineage PanAsia-2) that is reported frequently from different areas of Pakistan. Confirmed cases of serotype A and Asia-1 are also reported. The information gathered can be used for understanding the molecular epidemiology of FMD in Pakistan. Further studies on the molecular dynamics of FMD could be useful for ensuring the timely diagnosis of this deadly pathogen, which would ultimately be beneficial for the mass vaccination programs of FMD in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Dairy Animals)
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