Special Issue "Wave Climate"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alvaro Semedo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: air-sea interaction; wave climate; climate change
Dr. Bahareh Kamranzad
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Interests: marine renewable energies; climate change impacts; future projections; wave modeling; spatiotemporal assessment of long-term wave climate
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to gather recent advances in the field of wave climate: in the monitoring of the present wave climate but also in how climate change can impact the future wave climate.

Wind waves are a key element of the climate system, modulating the exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass across the air–sea interface. However, they also play a striking role in coastal and offshore engineering and environmental issues, for example, in determining the rates of coastal erosion and along coast sediment budgets. In the open ocean, waves frequently represent a major hazard to any offshore operation or structure, or to shipping activity, despite being able to be utilized as a source of renewable energy. Changes in wave climate are therefore of central importance for almost all aspects of coastal and offshore activities. A greater understanding of the wind wave climate, in the present time and in the future, is therefore of greater importance for a sustainable development. Studies of interest to this Special Issue shall include but are not limited to: regional and global wave climate studies (present and future), extreme wave analysis, wave energy, and wind modelling (reanalyses and hindcasts) studies.


Dr. Alvaro Semedo
Dr. Bahareh Kamranzad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Wave climate
  • Wave reanalysis and hindcasts
  • Extreme waves
  • Wave climate change
  • Wave energy

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Increasing Trend on Storm Wave Intensity in the Western Mediterranean
Climate 2021, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9010011 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Annual trends in storm wave intensity over the past 41 years were evaluated during the present study. Storm wave intensity is evaluated in terms of total storm wave energy (TSWE) and storm power index (SPI) of Dolan and Davis (1992). Using an accurate [...] Read more.
Annual trends in storm wave intensity over the past 41 years were evaluated during the present study. Storm wave intensity is evaluated in terms of total storm wave energy (TSWE) and storm power index (SPI) of Dolan and Davis (1992). Using an accurate long-term wave hindcast developed using a calibrated SWAN model, all storm wave events occurring over the past 41 years were characterized in terms of significant wave height (Hs) and total storm duration. Thus, both SPI and TSWE was computed for each storm wave event. The Theil–Sen slope estimator was used to estimate the annual slopes of the SPI and TSWE and the Mann–Kendall test was used to test the trend significance with different confidence levels. The present study is spatially performed for the western Mediterranean Sea basin considering 2308 grid points in a regular grid of 0.198° resolution in both directions. Results allow as to define five hotspots covering a large area, experienced a significant increasing slope in both SPI and TSWE (annual maxima and average). The confidence level in this area exceed 95%, with a steep slope between 100 kWh·m−1·year−1 and 240 kWh·m−1·year−1 for annual max TSWE and between 28 m²·h·year−1 and 49 m²·h·year−1 for annual max SPI. Consideration of the present findings is strongly recommended for risk assessment and for sustainable development in coastal and offshore area and to identify areas sensitive to global climate change in the western Mediterranean Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Climate)
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