Special Issue "Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Effie Kostopoulou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, University of the Aegean, Lesbos, Greece
Interests: synoptic climatology with particular emphasis on the Mediterranean region; relationships between atmospheric circulation processes and surface climate conditions; climate change and socio-economic impacts; climate extreme events; climate models and climate indices
Dr. Sotirios Koukoulas
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, University of the Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Greece
Interests: geographic information science; remote sensing; spatial statistics; land change science; environmental monitoring and modeling; environmental inequalities; spatial planning; climate change impacts
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The change of earth’s climate has gained increasing attention mainly due to the potential impacts it might induce. Climate change is expected to trigger disruptive environmental events with impacts that could pose significant risks to societies and economies.

This special issue focuses on the multidisciplinary nature of  climate change research which employs, apart from the natural sciences, scientists from social, political, and economic fields. The scientific basis for climate change is now established and many studies focus on the potential impacts on a variety of socio-economic sectors such as, human health, food security, ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, fishery, tourism, water resources, and energy demand. The rise of interdisciplinary research on climate change and its effects, highlighted the need for available data on several spatial scales, from local and regional to global scales.

Moreover, modern technologies that facilitate data availability and analysis are of particular interest. Advances in database technology allow researchers and end-users to manage large databases. Technology improvements generate better sets of data in terms of accuracy, resolution, coverage and allow the implementation of innovative methods to evaluate or/and combat the effects of climate change including the risk assessment for natural disasters. Application of global and regional climate data are used to study atmospheric processes and the changes in global and regional climate. Many applications require data at finer scales, setting the priorities for the development of novel downscaling techniques.

Nowadays, significant amount of climate data, useful in climate change research, become available from satellites, as satellite imagery provides valuable information for the atmospheric and surface climate conditions. Satellite observations are essential for improving the understanding of climate change and assessing its impacts. Among the priorities of this special issue, are the use of geospatial technologies, such as remote sensing and geographical information systems, for monitoring and modeling the climate system, and evaluating the effects of climate change on natural systems/resources.

Well prepared review papers are also welcomed.

Kind regards,

Dr. Effie Kostopoulou
Dr. Sotirios Koukoulas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • satellite derived essential climate variables
  • climatic indices
  • climate monitoring and analysis
  • vulnerability assessment and mapping
  • climate change and water resources
  • climate change and food security
  • climate change and natural disasters
  • climate change and socio-economic impacts
  • climate change and land use changes
  • climate change and ecosystems
  • climate change and energy demand
  • adaptation strategies
  • scenario analysis
  • mitigation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Integrated Water Vapor during Rain and Rain-Free Conditions above the Swiss Plateau
Climate 2021, 9(7), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9070105 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Water vapor column density, or vertically-integrated water vapor (IWV), is monitored by ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) and ground-based receivers of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). For rain periods, the retrieval of IWV from GNSS Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) neglects the atmospheric propagation [...] Read more.
Water vapor column density, or vertically-integrated water vapor (IWV), is monitored by ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) and ground-based receivers of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). For rain periods, the retrieval of IWV from GNSS Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) neglects the atmospheric propagation delay of the GNSS signal by rain droplets. Similarly, it is difficult for ground-based dual-frequency single-polarisation microwave radiometers to separate the microwave emission of water vapor and cloud droplets from the rather strong microwave emission of rain. For ground-based microwave radiometry at Bern (Switzerland), we take the approach that IWV during rain is derived from linearly interpolated opacities before and after the rain period. The intermittent rain periods often appear as spikes in the time series of integrated liquid water (ILW) and are indicated by ILW ≥ 0.4 mm. In the present study, we assume that IWV measurements from radiosondes are not affected by rain. We intercompare the climatologies of IWV(rain), IWV(no rain), and IWV(all) obtained by radiosonde, ground-based GNSS atmosphere sounding, ground-based MWR, and ECMWF reanalysis (ERA5) at Payerne and Bern in Switzerland. In all seasons, IWV(rain) is 3.75 to 5.94 mm greater than IWV(no rain). The mean IWV differences between GNSS and radiosonde at Payerne are less than 0.26 mm. The datasets at Payerne show a better agreement than the datasets at Bern. However, the MWR at Bern agrees with the radiosonde at Payerne within 0.41 mm for IWV(rain) and 0.02 mm for IWV(no rain). Using the GNSS and rain gauge measurements at Payerne, we find that IWV(rain) increases with increase of the precipitation rate during summer as well as during winter. IWV(rain) above the Swiss Plateau is quite well estimated by GNSS and MWR though the standard retrievals are limited or hampered during rain periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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Article
Multisector Risk Identification to Assess Resilience to Flooding
Climate 2021, 9(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9050073 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Climate trends suggest an increase in the frequency of intense rainfall events and the aggravation of existing conditions in terms of flooding in urban areas. In coastal areas, conditions are aggravated by coexistence with coastal overtopping. Flood risk control is complex, and the [...] Read more.
Climate trends suggest an increase in the frequency of intense rainfall events and the aggravation of existing conditions in terms of flooding in urban areas. In coastal areas, conditions are aggravated by coexistence with coastal overtopping. Flood risk control is complex, and the interdependencies among the services and sectors in urban areas imply the need for adoption of approaches that embrace the interplay between service providers to ensure critical urban functions. Flooding incorporates several hazards. Assessment of resilience to multiple hazards in complex environments benefits from integrated and multi-sectoral approaches. A common constraint resides in the limited data and tools available for undertaking these complex assessments. This paper proposes a risk-based methodology to assess urban areas’ resilience to flooding by addressing sectors’ interdependencies in a context of limited data and ready-to-use tools. Multisector flood risk identification is pursued with the support of a geographic information system and is applied to Lisbon with a focus on the cascading effects of drainage system failures on buildings, populations, mobility, waste management, and electricity supply. The results demonstrate the potential for combining data and knowledge from different sources with dual modelling approaches, thus allowing one to obtain trends of exposure and vulnerability to flooding for current and climate change scenarios. This methodology facilitates dialogue among stakeholders and decision levels by contributing to capacity building, and it contributes to sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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Article
Impact of the Strong Downwelling (Upwelling) on Small Pelagic Fish Production during the 2016 (2019) Negative (Positive) Indian Ocean Dipole Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean off Java
Climate 2021, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020029 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Although researchers have investigated the impact of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phases on human lives, only a few have examined such impacts on fisheries. In this study, we analyzed the influence of negative (positive) IOD phases on chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations as an [...] Read more.
Although researchers have investigated the impact of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phases on human lives, only a few have examined such impacts on fisheries. In this study, we analyzed the influence of negative (positive) IOD phases on chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and small pelagic fish production in the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) off Java. We also conducted field surveys in the EIO off Palabuhanratu Bay at the peak (October) and the end (December) of the 2019 positive IOD phase. Our findings show that the Chl-a concentration had a strong and robust association with the 2016 (2019) negative (positive) IOD phases. The negative (positive) anomalous Chl-a concentration in the EIO off Java associated with the negative (positive) IOD phase induced strong downwelling (upwelling), leading to the preponderant decrease (increase) in small pelagic fish production in the EIO off Java. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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Article
Intraseasonal Precipitation Variability over West Africa under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C Global Warming Scenarios: Results from CORDEX RCMs
Climate 2020, 8(12), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8120143 - 06 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1255
Abstract
This study assessed the performance of 24 simulations, from five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), in representing spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation over West Africa, compared to observations. The top five performing RCM simulations were used [...] Read more.
This study assessed the performance of 24 simulations, from five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), in representing spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation over West Africa, compared to observations. The top five performing RCM simulations were used to assess future precipitation changes over West Africa, under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming levels (GWLs), following the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. The performance evaluation and future change assessment were done using a set of seven ‘descriptors’ of West African precipitation namely the simple precipitation intensity index (SDII), the consecutive wet days (CWD), the number of wet days index (R1MM), the number of wet days with moderate and heavy intensity precipitation (R10MM and R30MM, respectively), and annual and June to September daily mean precipitation (ANN and JJAS, respectively). The performance assessment and future change outlook were done for the CORDEX–Africa subdomains of north West Africa (WA-N), south West Africa (WA-S), and a combination of the two subdomains. While the performance of RCM runs was descriptor- and subregion- specific, five model runs emerged as top performers in representing precipitation characteristics over both WA-N and WA-S. The five model runs are CCLM4 forced by ICHEC-EC-EARTH (r12i1p1), RCA4 forced by CCCma-CanESM2 (r1i1p1), RACMO22T forced by MOHC-HadGEM2-ES (r1i1p1), and the ensemble means of simulations made by CCLM4 and RACMO22T. All precipitation descriptors recorded a reduction under the two warming levels, except the SDII which recorded an increase. Unlike the WA-N that showed less frequency and more intense precipitation, the WA-S showed increased frequency and intensity. Given the potential impact that these projected changes may have on West Africa’s socioeconomic activities, adjustments in investment may be required to take advantage of (and enhance system resilience against damage that may result from) the potential changes in precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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Article
Modeling the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yield and Irrigation in the Monocacy River Watershed, USA
Climate 2020, 8(12), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8120139 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Crop yield depends on multiple factors, including climate conditions, soil characteristics, and available water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of projected temperature and precipitation changes on crop yields in the Monocacy River Watershed in the Mid-Atlantic United States [...] Read more.
Crop yield depends on multiple factors, including climate conditions, soil characteristics, and available water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of projected temperature and precipitation changes on crop yields in the Monocacy River Watershed in the Mid-Atlantic United States based on climate change scenarios. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate watershed hydrology and crop yield. To evaluate the effect of future climate projections, four global climate models (GCMs) and three representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5, 6, and 8.5) were used in the SWAT model. According to all GCMs and RCPs, a warmer climate with a wetter Autumn and Spring and a drier late Summer season is anticipated by mid and late century in this region. To evaluate future management strategies, water budget and crop yields were assessed for two scenarios: current rainfed and adaptive irrigated conditions. Irrigation would improve corn yields during mid-century across all scenarios. However, prolonged irrigation would have a negative impact due to nutrients runoff on both corn and soybean yields compared to rainfed condition. Decision tree analysis indicated that corn and soybean yields are most influenced by soil moisture, temperature, and precipitation as well as the water management practice used (i.e., rainfed or irrigated). The computed values from the SWAT modeling can be used as guidelines for water resource managers in this watershed to plan for projected water shortages and manage crop yields based on projected climate change conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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Article
Climatic Trends in Different Bioclimatic Zones in the Chitwan Annapurna Landscape, Nepal
Climate 2020, 8(11), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8110136 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 899
Abstract
The Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) is the central part of the Himalayas and covers all bioclimatic zones with major endemism of flora, unique agro-biodiversity, environmental, cultural and socio-economic importance. Not much is known about temperature and precipitation trends along the different bioclimatic zones [...] Read more.
The Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) is the central part of the Himalayas and covers all bioclimatic zones with major endemism of flora, unique agro-biodiversity, environmental, cultural and socio-economic importance. Not much is known about temperature and precipitation trends along the different bioclimatic zones nor how changes in these parameters might impact the whole natural process, including biodiversity and ecosystems, in the CHAL. Analysis of daily temperature and precipitation time series data (1970–2019) was carried out in seven bioclimatic zones extending from lowland Terai to the higher Himalayas. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to determine the trends, which were quantified by Sen’s slope. Annual and decade interval average temperature, precipitation trends, and lapse rate were analyzed in each bioclimatic zone. In the seven bioclimatic zones, precipitation showed a mixed pattern of decreasing and increasing trends (four bioclimatic zones showed a decreasing and three bioclimatic zones an increasing trend). Precipitation did not show any particular trend at decade intervals but the pattern of rainfall decreases after 2000AD. The average annual temperature at different bioclimatic zones clearly indicates that temperature at higher elevations is increasing significantly more than at lower elevations. In lower tropical bioclimatic zone (LTBZ), upper tropical bioclimatic zone (UTBZ), lower subtropical bioclimatic zone (LSBZ), upper subtropical bioclimatic zone (USBZ), and temperate bioclimatic zone (TBZ), the average temperature increased by 0.022, 0.030, 0.036, 0.042 and 0.051 °C/year, respectively. The decade level temperature scenario revealed that the hottest decade was from 1999–2009 and average decade level increases of temperature at different bioclimatic zones ranges from 0.2 to 0.27 °C /decade. The average temperature and precipitation was found clearly different from one bioclimatic zone to other. This is the first time that bioclimatic zone level precipitation and temperature trends have been analyzed for the CHAL. The rate of additional temperature rise at higher altitudes compared to lower elevations meets the requirements to mitigate climate change in different bioclimatic zones in a different ways. This information would be fundamental to safeguarding vulnerable communities, ecosystem and relevant climate-sensitive sectors from the impact of climate change through formulation of sector-wise climate change adaptation strategies and improving the livelihood of rural communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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Article
Ecological Niche Models Reveal Climate Change Effect on Biogeographical Regions: The Iberian Peninsula as a Case Study
Climate 2020, 8(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8030042 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
How species are distributed on Earth depends largely on climate factors. Whenever these environmental conditions change, species tend to shift their distributions to reach more favourable conditions. Distinct sets of species similarly distributed (i.e., chorotypes) occur in biogeographical regions with homogeneous environmental conditions. [...] Read more.
How species are distributed on Earth depends largely on climate factors. Whenever these environmental conditions change, species tend to shift their distributions to reach more favourable conditions. Distinct sets of species similarly distributed (i.e., chorotypes) occur in biogeographical regions with homogeneous environmental conditions. Here, we analysed whether biogeographical regions are unstable over time (from the past to the future). We modelled the realised niche of amphibians and reptiles in the Iberian Peninsula in the present, and several past and future climate scenarios. Then, we used Jaccard’s index and the unweighted pair group method (UPGMA) to define the biogeographical regions. Our results suggest that the biogeographical regions of Iberian amphibians and reptiles changed greatly over time, due to the climatic changes between periods. Biogeographical regions composed of species with Atlantic affinities changed particularly, overall gaining suitable areas in past colder periods and losing suitable areas in warmer periods. The areas of refugia for amphibians over time corresponded to the most humid regions (north-west of the peninsula), while the most important areas for reptiles occur in the south and on the Atlantic coast. The identification of biogeographical patterns considering past climate changes is essential to better apply conservation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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