Special Issue "Functionalized Materials for Chemosensor Applications"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Chemical Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 4903

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Juraj Dian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Prague 2, Czech Republic
2. Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Charles University, Hlavova 2030/8, CZ-128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
Interests: gas sensors; sensing materials; optical chemical sensors; Molecular devices and machines, sensor devices and sensor arrays

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Chemosensors is devoted to the techniques and procedures for the improvement of sensitivity and selectivity of sensing the chemical species in gas and liquid phase via the functionalization of the surface of the sensor elements.

Chemical sensors are nowadays used in many branches of industry, like environmental pollutants and food quality monitoring, health diagnostics, and the control of chemical processes. Although the field of chemical sensors has matured in recent decades, and many sensor systems are nowadays on the market, there still remain many limitations concerning both the sensitivity and the selectivity of the sensor response, operational temperature, and the lifetime of the sensor materials. Functionalization of sensor elements via metal doping, surface functionalization with organic compounds or polymers possessing molecular recognition properties, or using the nanostructured architecture of sensor materials, are promising ways of solving one or several of the above-mentioned limitations of modern chemosensors. The task of improving sensor selectivity is closely related to the clarification of the role of molecular recognition that can be introduced into the detection process, either via surface functionalization or the material architecture of the sensor material.

The aim of this Special Issue is to review the latest achievements in the functionalization of the sensor materials that result in the improvement of the operational stability, sensitivity, or selectivity of sensor response to specific classes of chemical compounds, both in gas and liquid phases. The examples of sensor selectivity enhancement by the use of functionalization methods and mechanisms of molecular recognition will be reported. The topics to be included in this Special Issue are:

  • New materials for chemical sensors
  • Ion doping functionalization
  • Surface functionalization by covalent bonding
  • Surface functionalization by electrostatic binding
  • Surface functionalization via polymer films deposition
  • Functionalization via nanostructured architecture of sensor materials
  • Sensor parameters improvement due to surface functionalization
  • Molecular recognition of functionalized sensor materials

On behalf of the Guest Editor and the Editor-in Chief, we encourage you to submit your work to this Special Issue.

Dr. Juraj Dian
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • solid state sensor
  • gas sensor
  • liquid sensor
  • nanostructured materials
  • composite materials
  • conductive polymers
  • imprinted polymers
  • surface functionalization
  • molecular recognition
  • host–guest interaction
  • key–lock interaction
  • biosensor
  • sensors array
  • chemical sensing mechanism

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
In2O3 Based Hybrid Materials: Interplay between Microstructure, Photoelectrical and Light Activated NO2 Sensor Properties
Chemosensors 2022, 10(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10040135 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
In this work, organic–inorganic hybrids based on nanocrystalline indium oxide and ruthenium (II) heteroleptic complexes were used as sensitive materials for room temperature light-activated NO2 detection. In2O3 was obtained by chemical precipitation method and then annealed at three different [...] Read more.
In this work, organic–inorganic hybrids based on nanocrystalline indium oxide and ruthenium (II) heteroleptic complexes were used as sensitive materials for room temperature light-activated NO2 detection. In2O3 was obtained by chemical precipitation method and then annealed at three different temperatures (T = 300, 500, 700 °C) in order to investigate the influence of the microstructure of indium oxide on sensor characteristics of hybrid materials and on kinetics of the rise and fall of photoconductivity. The results of the X-ray phase analysis demonstrated that the obtained materials are single-phase with a cubic bixbyite structure. The Ru (II) heteroleptic complex, which was used as a photosensitizer, made it possible to shift the optical sensitivity range of the hybrids to the low energy region of the spectrum and to use a low-power LED (λmax = 470 nm) source for the photoactivation process. The sensor properties were investigated toward NO2 at sub-ppm range at room temperature. It was found that for pure oxides, the sensor signal correlates with a specific surface area, while for hybrid materials, both the sensor signal and photoresponse increase with increasing the matrix crystallinity. In this case, the main role is played by traps of nonequilibrium charge carriers, which are structural defects in the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Materials for Chemosensor Applications)
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Article
Perchlorate Solid-Contact Ion-Selective Electrode Based on Dodecabenzylbambus[6]uril
Chemosensors 2022, 10(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10030115 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Dodecabenzylbambus[6]uril (Bn12BU[6]) is an anion receptor that binds the perchlorate ion the most tightly (stability constant ~1010 M−1) of all anions due to the excellent match between the ion size in relation to the receptor cavity. This new bambusuril compound was used as [...] Read more.
Dodecabenzylbambus[6]uril (Bn12BU[6]) is an anion receptor that binds the perchlorate ion the most tightly (stability constant ~1010 M−1) of all anions due to the excellent match between the ion size in relation to the receptor cavity. This new bambusuril compound was used as an ionophore in the ion-selective membrane (ISM) to develop ion selective electrodes (ISEs) for determination of perchlorate concentration utilizing the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer film as a solid-contact material. Variation of the content of Bn12BU[6] and tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMACl) in the plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)-based ISM was also tested. All the prepared solid-contact ISEs and their analytical performance were characterized by potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronopotentiometry. The ISEs showed rapid response and a sub-Nernstian slope (~57 mV/decade) during potentiometric measurements in perchlorate solutions in the concentration range from 10−1 to 10−6 M simultaneously with their high stability and sufficient selectivity to other common inorganic anions like bromide, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. The function of the ISE was further verified by analysis of real water samples (lake, sea, and mineral water), which gave accurate and precise results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Materials for Chemosensor Applications)
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Article
Study of Photoregeneration of Zinc Phthalocyanine Chemiresistor after Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090237 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
In this work, we present a complex study of photoregeneration of a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) sensor by illumination from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). It includes an investigation of photoregeneration effectivity for various wavelengths (412–723 nm) of incident light carried out at sensor operating temperatures [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a complex study of photoregeneration of a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) sensor by illumination from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). It includes an investigation of photoregeneration effectivity for various wavelengths (412–723 nm) of incident light carried out at sensor operating temperatures of 55 °C. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of photoregeneration is increasing with a decrease in the light wavelength. In the region of longer wavelengths (723–630 nm), the regeneration degree (RD) was low and ranged from 12% to 15%. In the region of shorter wavelengths (518–412 nm), the RD rose from 35% for 518 nm to 94% for 412 nm. The efficiency of photoregeneration is also shown to be higher in comparison with the temperature regeneration efficiency. In order to understand the chemism of photoregeneration processes, the electrical measurements are supplemented with Raman and near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) studies. The spectroscopic results showed that nitrogen dioxide bonds to the Zn atom in ZnPc in the form of NO2 and NO, i.e., partial decomposition of NO2 molecules occurs during the interaction with the surface. NAP-XPS spectra proved that light illumination of the ZnPc surface is essential for almost complete desorption of NOx species. At the same time, it is demonstrated that in case of long-time exposure or exposure of a ZnPc chemiresistor with a high concentration of NO2, the oxygen, released due to the NO2 decomposition, slowly but irreversibly oxidizes the layer. This oxidation process is most probably responsible for the sensor deactivation observed in sensor experiments with high NO2 concentrations. Based on these studies, the mechanism of nitrogen dioxide interaction with zinc phthalocyanine both under LED illumination and in dark conditions is proposed, and a special method for the sensor operation called “constant exposure dose” is established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Materials for Chemosensor Applications)
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Article
Potentiometric Electronic Tongue for Pharmaceutical Analytics: Determination of Ascorbic Acid Based on Electropolymerized Films
Chemosensors 2021, 9(5), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9050110 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
This work deals with the design of an experimental potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) for the recognition of various samples of effervescent tablets with different ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents. The ET consisted of twelve potentiometric sensors based on conductive polymers, which were derived [...] Read more.
This work deals with the design of an experimental potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) for the recognition of various samples of effervescent tablets with different ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents. The ET consisted of twelve potentiometric sensors based on conductive polymers, which were derived from 4-amino-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid, and neutral red on the surface of the platinum electrode using cyclic voltammetry. The aim of the potentiometric study was to assess the influence of the vitamin C content and the composition of the matrix of commercial samples on the potentiometric response. The results obtained from the sensor array proved that the stability of the potentiometric signal and the accuracy of measurements are affected by individual sensors. The identification of the vitamin C content in the individual samples of effervescent tablets obtained by means of the potentiometric electronic tongue corresponded with the results of the coulometric titration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Materials for Chemosensor Applications)
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Review

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Review
How Chemoresistive Sensors Can Learn from Heterogeneous Catalysis. Hints, Issues, and Perspectives
Chemosensors 2021, 9(8), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9080193 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
The connection between heterogeneous catalysis and chemoresistive sensors is emerging more and more clearly, as concerns the well-known case of supported noble metals nanoparticles. On the other hand, it appears that a clear connection has not been set up yet for metal oxide [...] Read more.
The connection between heterogeneous catalysis and chemoresistive sensors is emerging more and more clearly, as concerns the well-known case of supported noble metals nanoparticles. On the other hand, it appears that a clear connection has not been set up yet for metal oxide catalysts. In particular, the catalytic properties of several different oxides hold the promise for specifically designed gas sensors in terms of selectivity towards given classes of analytes. In this review, several well-known metal oxide catalysts will be considered by first exposing solidly established catalytic properties that emerge from related literature perusal. On this basis, existing gas-sensing applications will be discussed and related, when possible, with the obtained catalysis results. Then, further potential sensing applications will be proposed based on the affinity of the catalytic pathways and possible sensing pathways. It will appear that dialogue with heterogeneous catalysis may help workers in chemoresistive sensors to design new systems and to gain remarkable insight into the existing sensing properties, in particular by applying the approaches and techniques typical of catalysis. However, several divergence points will appear between metal oxide catalysis and gas-sensing. Nevertheless, it will be pointed out how such divergences just push to a closer exchange between the two fields by using the catalysis knowledge as a toolbox for investigating the sensing mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Materials for Chemosensor Applications)
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