Special Issue "Catalysts in 1D and 2D Materials—Their Role in Synthesis, Properties and Applications"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2021) | Viewed by 4382

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Thurid Gspann
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
Interests: catalysis; CVD synthesis; process engineering; nanomaterials; characterization
Dr. Adarsh Kaniyoor
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS, UK
Interests: catalysis; CVD; nanomaterials; material characterization; finite element modelling; statistical analyses; photovoltaics; sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last two decades, the research on 1D and 2D materials has expanded rapidly. It is up to date led by carbon nanotube and graphene research but complimented by other hexagonal lattice materials such as boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides and many more. All of these materials are synthesized via processes that crucially require catalysts to enable and control production, and enhance production rates. The size and composition of catalysts, treatment or functionalization done, their production and delivery methods etc. determine the reaction kinetics and direction. The final product may either still retain catalyst particles or be purified thereof – in either case, the resultant material’s properties will be affected significantly.  In this special issue, the scope is on ‘Catalysts in 1D and 2D materials – Their role in synthesis, properties and applications’. The issue will cover the whole bandwidth from the catalysts’ role for synthesis – the effects of different catalyst sources, non-iron catalysts, control of catalyst size, on-substrate or substrate-free catalyst systems, pre-synthesis or in-situ catalyst production, up to their role as residue in the final material – their effects on the material’s physical properties, characterization methods, and processes for their removal. Computational studies on catalysts within the above scope are also welcome.

Dr. Thurid Gspann
Dr. Adarsh Kaniyoor
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • 1D and 2D materials
  • Carbon nanotubes / CNTs
  • Graphene
  • Boron Nitride / BN
  • TMDC
  • Synthesis
  • Catalyst materials
  • Catalyst production
  • Characterization
  • Removal processes
  • Computation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of a Metallocene Catalyst Mixture on CNT Yield Using the FC-CVD Process
Catalysts 2022, 12(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12030287 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
This work studies synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet using the high temperature (1400 °C) floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) method. Three metallocenes—ferrocene, nickelocene, cobaltocene—and their combinations are used as precursors for metal catalysts in the synthesis process. For the carbon source, [...] Read more.
This work studies synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet using the high temperature (1400 °C) floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) method. Three metallocenes—ferrocene, nickelocene, cobaltocene—and their combinations are used as precursors for metal catalysts in the synthesis process. For the carbon source, an alcohol fuel, a combination of methanol and n-hexane (9:1), is used. First, the metallocenes were dissolved in the alcohol fuel. Then, the fuel mixture was injected into a tube furnace using an ultrasonic atomizer with Ar/H2 carrier gas in a ratio of about 12/1. The synthesis of CNTs from a combination of two or three metallocenes reduces the percentage of metal catalyst impurity in the CNT sheet. However, there is an increase in structural defects in the CNTs when using mixtures of two or three metallocenes as catalysts. Furthermore, the specific electrical conductivity of the CNT sheet was highest when using a mixture of ferrocene and cobaltocene as the catalyst. Overall, the multi-catalyst method described enables tailoring certain properties of the CNT sheet. However, the standard ferrocene catalyst seems most appropriate for large-scale manufacturing at the lowest cost. Full article
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Article
Catalyst-Mediated Enhancement of Carbon Nanotube Textiles by Laser Irradiation: Nanoparticle Sweating and Bundle Alignment
Catalysts 2021, 11(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11030368 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
The photonic post-processing of suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) ribbons made by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) results in selective sorting of the carbon nanotubes present. Defective, thermally non-conductive or unconnected CNTs are burned away, in some cases leaving behind a highly crystalline [...] Read more.
The photonic post-processing of suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) ribbons made by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) results in selective sorting of the carbon nanotubes present. Defective, thermally non-conductive or unconnected CNTs are burned away, in some cases leaving behind a highly crystalline (as indicated by the Raman G:D ratio), highly conductive network. However, the improvement in crystallinity does not always occur but is dependent on sample composition. Here, we report on fundamental features, which are observed for all samples. Pulse irradiation (not only by laser but also white light camera flashes, as well as thermal processes such as Joule heating) lead to (1) the sweating-out of catalyst nanoparticles resulting in molten catalyst beads of up to several hundreds of nanometres in diameter on the textile surface and (2) a significant improvement in CNT bundle alignment. The behavior of the catalyst beads is material dependent. Here, we show the underlying mechanisms of the photonic post-treatment by modelling the macro- and microstructural changes of the CNT network and show that it is mainly the amount of residual catalyst which determines how much energy these materials can withstand before their complete decomposition. Full article
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Article
Flow Simulations Including Iron Nanoparticle Nucleation, Growth and Evaporation for Floating Catalyst CNT Production
Catalysts 2020, 10(12), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10121383 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
We use a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a particle dynamics model to simulate how catalyst nanoparticles nucleate, grow and evaporate over the length of a floating catalyst reactor. We focus on the influence of the flowrate in the reactor and the [...] Read more.
We use a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a particle dynamics model to simulate how catalyst nanoparticles nucleate, grow and evaporate over the length of a floating catalyst reactor. We focus on the influence of the flowrate in the reactor and the ferrocene mass fraction on the production of the catalyst nanoparticles. In the downstream region of the reactor, where the majority of CNT growth occurs, we find that, as either the flowrate or the ferrocene mass fraction increases, the particle mass fraction profile changes, with the mass fraction peak shifting away from the centreline. This displacement away from the centreline of the mass fraction peak may explain why the CNTs form a hollow, sock-like, aerogel at the downstream end of the reactor. Full article
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Article
Precise Catalyst Production for Carbon Nanotube Synthesis with Targeted Structure Enrichment
Catalysts 2020, 10(9), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10091087 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The direct growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow distribution of diameter or chirality remains elusive despite significant benefits in properties and applications. Nanoparticle catalysts are vital for SWCNT synthesis, but how to precisely manipulate their chemistry, size, concentration, and deposition [...] Read more.
The direct growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow distribution of diameter or chirality remains elusive despite significant benefits in properties and applications. Nanoparticle catalysts are vital for SWCNT synthesis, but how to precisely manipulate their chemistry, size, concentration, and deposition remains difficult, especially within a continuous production process from the gas phase. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of W6Co7 alloyed nanoparticle catalysts with precisely tunable stoichiometry using electrospray, which remain solid state during SWCNT growth. We also demonstrate continuous production of liquid iron nanoparticles with in-line size selection. With the precise size manipulation of catalysts in the range of 1–5 nm, and a nearly monodisperse distribution (σg < 1.2), an excellent size selection of SWCNTs can be achieved. All of the presented techniques show great potential to facilitate the realization of single-chirality SWCNTs production. Full article
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