Special Issue "Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Biology and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Carmen Cantisani
E-Mail
Guest Editor
UOC of dermatology. Policlinico Umberto I, viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome ,Italy
Interests: general dermatology; hair loss disease; dermoscopy; allergologic and inflammatory dermatology; aesthetic dermatology; skin repair; lasers; skin cancers; photodynamic therapy especially daylight PDT
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Giovanni Pellacani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Department of Dermatology, Modena, Italy
Interests: skin cancer, melanoma; early diagnosis; non invasive techniques; dermoscopy; confocal microscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Stefano Calvieri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Dermatology, Rome, Italy
Interests: skin cancer; rare disease; hair loss; stem cell

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of three elements: photosensitizer, light and oxygen. Photoactivated chemotherapy is based on the use of inactive prodrugs whose biological activity is significantly increased upon exposure to light. As light can be delivered at a very high spatiotemporal resolution, this technique is a promising approach to selectively activate cytotoxic drugs at their site of action and thus to improve the tolerability and safety of chemotherapy. The photosensitizer has the property of selective accumulation in abnormal or infected tissues without causing any damage to the healthy cells. Light-activable cytotoxic agents present a novel approach in targeted cancer therapy. The selectivity in addressing cancer cells is a crucial aspect in minimizing unwanted side effects that stem from unspecific cytotoxic activity of cancer chemotherapeutics. This innovative strategy can be applied to both cytotoxic metal complexes and organic compounds. This innovative therapeutic method has already been successfully adapted in many fields of medicine, e.g. dermatology, gynecology, lung diseases, ophthalmology, liver and oral disease, urology and cancer therapy. The aim of this Special Issue is to present the current state of photoactivated cancer therapy and to identify its challenges and opportunities. It will have a practical approach for new users for widespread use, focusing on non-invasive imaging for early diagnosis and follow-up; tips and tricks from expert centers; off-label use and new application and/or formulations; medico-legal issue, aesthetic implications and quality of life; with particular focus on the dermatologic field, since the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) continues to grow at an alarming rate, becoming an occupational disease.

Dr. Carmen Cantisani
Prof. Giovanni Pellacan
Prof. Stefano Calvieri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • aesthetic outcome
  • fibroblastic activity
  • light
  • medico-legal issue
  • non-invasive imaging
  • NMSC
  • off-label use
  • photosensitizer

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Photodynamic Therapy Activated by Intense Pulsed Light in the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010018 - 07 Feb 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4059
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) has proven to be a highly effective conservative method for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen’s disease (BD), and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). PDT is traditionally performed in association [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) has proven to be a highly effective conservative method for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen’s disease (BD), and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). PDT is traditionally performed in association with broad-spectrum continuous-wave light sources, such as red or blue light. Recently, intense pulsed light (IPL) devices have been investigated as an alternative light source for PDT in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). We herein report our observational findings in a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of AK, sBCC, and BD that is treated with MAL-PDT using IPL, as well as we review published data on the use of IPL-PDT in NMSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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Review

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Review
Photodynamic Therapy in Ocular Oncology
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010017 - 07 Feb 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Although introduced for the treatment of maculopathies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is now largely used in some eye cancers treatment. The selective tissue damage with PDT is achieved by sequestration of the photosensitizer in the target tissue and focal activation of the photosensitizer by [...] Read more.
Although introduced for the treatment of maculopathies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is now largely used in some eye cancers treatment. The selective tissue damage with PDT is achieved by sequestration of the photosensitizer in the target tissue and focal activation of the photosensitizer by low energy directed light. In this way, it is possible to achieve the destruction of the tumor tissue by safeguarding the surrounding healthy structures. Our study describes the clinical uses and efficacy of photodynamic therapy in ocular oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
Review
The Role of Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010013 - 02 Feb 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
Background: vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a non-invasive precursor lesion found in 50–70% of patients affected by vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. In the past, radical surgery was the standard treatment for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, however, considering the psychological and physical morbidities related to extensive [...] Read more.
Background: vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a non-invasive precursor lesion found in 50–70% of patients affected by vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. In the past, radical surgery was the standard treatment for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, however, considering the psychological and physical morbidities related to extensive surgery, several less aggressive treatment modalities have been proposed since the late 1970s. Photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe treatment for cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer, with favorable cosmetic outcomes. Methods: in the present paper, the results of selected studies on photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia are reported and discussed. Results: Overall, complete histological response rates ranged between 20% and 67% and symptom response rates ranged between 52% and 89% according to different studies and case series. Conclusions: the real benefit of photodynamic therapy in the setting of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia lies in its ability to treat multi-focal disease with minimal tissue destruction, preservation of vulvar anatomy and excellent cosmetic outcomes. These properties explain why photodynamic therapy is an attractive option for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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Review
Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010012 - 29 Jan 2018
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. [...] Read more.
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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Review
Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010008 - 08 Jan 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3662
Abstract
Actinic keratosis represents the earliest manifestation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, an earlier diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Their diagnosis sometimes could represent a challenge even for expert dermatologists. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy [...] Read more.
Actinic keratosis represents the earliest manifestation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, an earlier diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Their diagnosis sometimes could represent a challenge even for expert dermatologists. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy and optical coherence tomography could help clinicians in diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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Review
Non Melanoma Skin Cancer Pathogenesis Overview
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010006 - 02 Jan 2018
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 5777
Abstract
(1) Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in humans. The process of skin carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. However, several studies have been conducted to better explain the mechanisms that lead to malignancy; (2) Methods: We reviewed the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in humans. The process of skin carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. However, several studies have been conducted to better explain the mechanisms that lead to malignancy; (2) Methods: We reviewed the more recent literature about the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer focusing on basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis; (3) Results: Several papers reported genetic and molecular alterations leading to non-melanoma skin cancer. Plenty of risk factors are involved in non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis, including genetic and molecular alterations, immunosuppression, and ultraviolet radiation; (4) Conclusion: Although skin carcinogenesis is still not fully understood, several papers demonstrated that genetic and molecular alterations are involved in this process. In addition, plenty of non-melanoma skin cancer risk factors are now known, allowing for an effective prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer development. Compared to other papers on the same topic, our review focused on molecular and genetic factors and analyzed in detail several factors involved in non-melanoma skin cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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Review
Histology of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers: An Update
Biomedicines 2017, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5040071 - 20 Dec 2017
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4624
Abstract
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in humans. Several different non-melanoma skin cancers have been reported in the literature, with several histologic variants that frequently cause important differential diagnoses with other cutaneous tumors basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the [...] Read more.
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in humans. Several different non-melanoma skin cancers have been reported in the literature, with several histologic variants that frequently cause important differential diagnoses with other cutaneous tumors basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant skin tumor, with different histologic variants that are associated with a greater or less aggressive behavior and that usually may be confused with other primitive skin tumors. Actinic keratosis, Bowen’s disease, keratoacanthoma, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) correspond to the other line of NMSC, that may have only local tumoral behavior, easy to treat and with local management (as in the case of actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma) or a more aggressive behavior with a potential metastatic spread, as in case of invasive SCC. Therefore, histopathology serves as the gold standard during daily clinical practice, in order to improve the therapeutical approaches to patients with NMSC and to understand the distinct histopathological features of NMSC. Here, we reported the main pathological features of different non-melanoma skin cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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Review
Photodynamic Therapy for Eye Cancer
Biomedicines 2017, 5(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5040069 - 08 Dec 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4069
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy is well-established as a treatment for a number of conditions in ophthalmology, principally in the field of medical retina, but less so in ocular oncology. Cancer of the eye is rare, the commonest lesions to affect the globe being choroidal melanoma [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy is well-established as a treatment for a number of conditions in ophthalmology, principally in the field of medical retina, but less so in ocular oncology. Cancer of the eye is rare, the commonest lesions to affect the globe being choroidal melanoma (as a primary malignancy) and choroidal metastases (a secondary malignancy). The mainstay of treatment of such lesions remains radiotherapy in various forms, however, photodynamic therapy does have a useful role to play in the management of such patients. In this article, I hope to review the current indications, treatment regimes, and the risks and benefits of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a treatment for eye cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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Review
New Paradigm for a Targeted Cancer Therapeutic Approach: A Short Review on Potential Synergy of Gold Nanoparticles and Cold Atmospheric Plasma
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030038 - 01 Jul 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3468
Abstract
Application of Gold nanoparticles and Cold Atmospheric plasma as a targeted therapeutic adjunct has been widely investigated separately in cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles, with their biocompatibility, lower cytotoxicity and superior efficacy, are becoming substantially more significant in modern cancer therapy. Likewise, cold atmospheric [...] Read more.
Application of Gold nanoparticles and Cold Atmospheric plasma as a targeted therapeutic adjunct has been widely investigated separately in cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles, with their biocompatibility, lower cytotoxicity and superior efficacy, are becoming substantially more significant in modern cancer therapy. Likewise, cold atmospheric plasma, with rich reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), is being explored to selectively target and kill cancer cells, making them a promising anticancer agent. Recent scientific studies have shown that there is a potential synergy between these two aspects. Induction of apoptosis/necrosis due to oxidative stress may be a probable mechanism of their cytotoxic effect. The synergetic effect of the two therapeutic approaches could be tantamount to maximized targeted efficacy on the treatment of diseases like cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
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