Diagnosis, Pathogenesis and Treatment of Central Nervous System Injuries

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurobiology and Clinical Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2022) | Viewed by 5843

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, University of Pecs, H-7623 Pecs, Hungary
2. Neurotrauma Research Group, Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, H-7624 Pecs, Hungary
3. ELKH-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, H-7623 Pecs, Hungary
Interests: traumatic brain injury (head injury); biomarkers; animal models; histopathological consequences; repetitive mild TBI; therapeutic (neuroprotective) interventions
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Injuries of the central nervous system represent a very common disease with a huge socio-economic burden. Recent epidemiological investigations have revealed that more than 50 million traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur yearly worldwide and are associated with an estimated annual cost of USD 400 billion. CNS injuries are very often referred to as “the most complex disease of the most complex organ”. Presently, there is room for improvement of diagnostic and prognostic tools (e.g., by the more widespread utilization or inclusion of the protein biomarkers). Moreover, practically no causal, individualized therapy exists, especially for the consequences of mild or repetitive mild TBI. One substantial reason for this is the fact that many of the pathophysiological processes that lead to long-term consequences are still unknown.

In this context, this Special Issue aims to collect experimental studies and reviews that fill the many gaps still existing in the knowledge of diagnosis, pathology and pathophysiology of CNS injuries and/or facilitate more specific and effective therapeutic interventions.

Dr. Endre Czeiter
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • CNS injury
  • traumatic brain injury
  • spinal cord injury
  • diagnostic tools
  • CT
  • MRI
  • histopathology
  • prognosis
  • biomarkers
  • proteomics
  • metabolomics
  • therapeutic interventions
  • animal models
  • neuroprotective substances/strategies

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4818 KiB  
Article
Plasma Cytokines Level and Spinal Cord MRI Predict Clinical Outcome in a Rat Glial Scar Cryoinjury Model
by Georgii B. Telegin, Aleksandr S. Chernov, Alexey N. Minakov, Maksim V. Rodionov, Vitaly A. Kazakov, Viktor A. Palikov, Irina P. Balmasova, Dmitry S. Asyutin, Yuri M. Poluektov, Nikolay A. Konovalov, Anna A. Kudriaeva, Aldo Spallone, Alexander G. Gabibov and Alexey A. Belogurov, Jr.
Biomedicines 2022, 10(10), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10102345 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
Traumatic injury of the spinal cord is still one of the most challenging problems in the neurosurgical practice. Despite a long history of implementation of translational medicine in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI), it remains one of the most frequent causes [...] Read more.
Traumatic injury of the spinal cord is still one of the most challenging problems in the neurosurgical practice. Despite a long history of implementation of translational medicine in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI), it remains one of the most frequent causes of human disability and a critical situation for world healthcare systems. Here, we used our rat model of the of unilateral controlled SCI induced by a cryoinjury, which consistently reproduces glial scarring and posttraumatic cyst formation, and specifically evaluated histological, bioimaging and cytokine data. We propose a 10-grade scoring scale, which can objectively estimate the extent of damage of the experimental SCI according to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. It provides a homogeneous and reliable visual control of the dynamics of the posttraumatic processes, which makes it possible to clearly distinguish the extent of early damage, the formation of glial scars and the development of posttraumatic syringomyelic cysts. The concentration of cytokines and chemokines in the plasma following the experimental SCI increased up to two orders of magnitude in comparison with intact animals, suggesting that a traumatic injury of the spinal cord was accompanied by a remarkable cytokine storm. Our data suggested that the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, GRO/KC, G-CSF, IFNγ and IL-13 may be considered as a reliable prognostic index for SCI. Finally, we demonstrated that MRI together with plasma cytokines level directly correlated and reliably predicted the clinical outcome following SCI. The present study brings novel noninvasive and intravital methods for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of SCI treatment protocols, which may be easily translated into the clinical practice. Full article
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18 pages, 4054 KiB  
Article
Serum Amyloid A1/Toll-Like Receptor-4 Axis, an Important Link between Inflammation and Outcome of TBI Patients
by Víctor Farré-Alins, Alejandra Palomino-Antolín, Paloma Narros-Fernández, Ana Belen Lopez-Rodriguez, Céline Decouty-Perez, Alicia Muñoz-Montero, Jorge Zamorano-Fernández, Beatriz Mansilla-Fernández, Javier Giner-García, Pablo García-Feijoo, Miguel Sáez-Alegre, Alexis J. Palpán-Flores, José María Roda-Frade, Cristina S. Carabias, Juliana M. Rosa, Belén Civantos-Martín, Santiago Yus-Teruel, Luis Gandía, Alfonso Lagares, Borja J. Hernández-García and Javier Egeaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Biomedicines 2021, 9(6), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060599 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3112
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide without any validated biomarker or set of biomarkers to help the diagnosis and evaluation of the evolution/prognosis of TBI patients. To achieve this aim, a deeper knowledge of [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide without any validated biomarker or set of biomarkers to help the diagnosis and evaluation of the evolution/prognosis of TBI patients. To achieve this aim, a deeper knowledge of the biochemical and pathophysiological processes triggered after the trauma is essential. Here, we identified the serum amyloid A1 protein-Toll-like receptor 4 (SAA1-TLR4) axis as an important link between inflammation and the outcome of TBI patients. Using serum and mRNA from white blood cells (WBC) of TBI patients, we found a positive correlation between serum SAA1 levels and injury severity, as well as with the 6-month outcome of TBI patients. SAA1 levels also correlate with the presence of TLR4 mRNA in WBC. In vitro, we found that SAA1 contributes to inflammation via TLR4 activation that releases inflammatory cytokines, which in turn increases SAA1 levels, establishing a positive proinflammatory loop. In vivo, post-TBI treatment with the TLR4-antagonist TAK242 reduces SAA1 levels, improves neurobehavioral outcome, and prevents blood–brain barrier disruption. Our data support further evaluation of (i) post-TBI treatment in the presence of TLR4 inhibition for limiting TBI-induced damage and (ii) SAA1-TLR4 as a biomarker of injury progression in TBI patients. Full article
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