10th Anniversary of Biomedicines: Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Brain Cancer

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Biology and Oncology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 14054

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Brain Tumor Biology, Danish Cancer Research Center (DCRC), 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: pharmacotherapeutics; genome instability; DNA repair; neuro-oncology; system biology; biomarkers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diffuse glioma is a devastating cancer of the brain, with a documented history of low survival rates. While a tumor of this malignant nature has undergone extensive molecular characterization, the current approach of genomic-informed precision medicine has largely failed to provide a long-term benefit. This questions the ability of using our approach to interpret current data for targeted therapy. The gradual shift from analyzing gene signatures to non-linear machine learning can aid in modeling the complex behavior of glioma. Importantly, an analytical system must facilitate an overall view of the molecular characteristics of different tumors, while continuing to incorporate patient data that can assist in the development of new druggable approaches. As we continue to understand the physiologic mechanisms of glioma, advancements in data interpretation will decipher the composition and functional landscape of tumor heterogeneity. The ultimate goal is to improve patient outcomes, without the risk of disease relapse.

It is our great pleasure to welcome clinicians and scientists to submit their original research work and/or review articles to be considered for publication in this Special Issue. The manuscript should focus on aspects of the development of novel, diagnostic, therapeutic targeting and molecular mechanisms of diffuse glioma in adult and pediatric settings, including, but not limited to, the following subtopics:

  • Biomarkers for monitoring disease progression;
  • Radiomics strategy for tumor grading;
  • Consequences of genome instability and DNA repair deficiencies;
  • Influence of the tumor immune microenvironment;
  • Chromatin modifications in promoting tumor malignancy;
  • Novel biomaterials for drug delivery;
  • Biological underpinnings of therapeutic resistance;
  • Use of omics technologies to optimize the development of targeted therapies.

Dr. Yi Chieh Lim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • genomic instability
  • DNA repair
  • chemotherapeutics
  • biomarkers
  • precision medicine
  • therapeutic resistance
  • theranostics
  • computational biology
  • bioinformatics
  • drug delivery
  • medical imaging

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 3243 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Glutathione-Dependent Enzymes and the Immunohistochemical Profile of Glial Neoplasms
by Larisa Obukhova, Tatiana Kopytova, Elena Murach, Natalya Shchelchkova, Claudia Kontorshchikova, Igor Medyanik, Natalia Orlinskaya, Artem Grishin, Michael Kontorshchikov and Dariya Badanina
Biomedicines 2022, 10(10), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10102393 - 25 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
This research aimed to investigate the relationships between the parameters of glutathione metabolism and the immunohistochemical characteristics of glial tumors. Postoperative material from 20 patients with gliomas of different grades of anaplasia was analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis of the interactions between the gliomas’ immunohistochemical [...] Read more.
This research aimed to investigate the relationships between the parameters of glutathione metabolism and the immunohistochemical characteristics of glial tumors. Postoperative material from 20 patients with gliomas of different grades of anaplasia was analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis of the interactions between the gliomas’ immunohistochemical markers and their glutathione-dependent enzymes was carried out using the STRING, BioGrid, while Signor databases revealed interactions between such glioma markers as IDH and p53 and the glutathione exchange enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). The most pronounced relationship with glutathione metabolism was demonstrated by the level of the nuclear protein Ki67 as a marker of proliferative activity, and the presence of the IDH1 mutation as one of the key genetic events of gliomagenesis. The glutathione system is an active participant in the body’s antioxidant defense, involving the p53 markers and MGMT promoter methylation. It allows characterization of the gliomal cells’ status at different stages of tumor development. Full article
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17 pages, 3853 KiB  
Article
Carbohydrate Metabolism Parameters of Adult Glial Neoplasms According to Immunohistochemical Profile
by Larisa Obukhova, Olga Nikiforova, Claudia Kontorshchikova, Igor Medyanik, Natalya Orlinskaya, Artem Grishin, Michael Kontorshchikov and Natalya Shchelchkova
Biomedicines 2022, 10(5), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10051007 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1550
Abstract
This research aimed to investigate the interrelationship of carbohydrate metabolism parameters and immunohistochemical characteristics of glial tumors. Tumor tissue, peritumoral area, and adjacent noncancerous tissue fragments of 20 patients with gliomas of varying degrees of anaplasia were analyzed. The greatest differences in the [...] Read more.
This research aimed to investigate the interrelationship of carbohydrate metabolism parameters and immunohistochemical characteristics of glial tumors. Tumor tissue, peritumoral area, and adjacent noncancerous tissue fragments of 20 patients with gliomas of varying degrees of anaplasia were analyzed. The greatest differences in the carbohydrate metabolism compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues were identified in the tumor tissue: reduction in the levels of lactate and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Significant differences with adjacent noncancerous tissues for the peritumoral zone were not found. The activity of the carbohydrate metabolism enzymes was different depending on the immunohistochemical glioma profile, especially from Ki 67 level. Bioinformatic analysis of the interactions of immunohistochemical markers of gliomas and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes using the databases of STRING, BioGrid, and Signor revealed the presence of biologically significant interactions with glycogen synthase kinase 3β, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and transketolase. The established interconnection of glycolysis with methylation of the promoter of O-6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) of gliomas can be used to increase chemotherapy efficiency. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1836 KiB  
Review
Cost Matrix of Molecular Pathology in Glioma—Towards AI-Driven Rational Molecular Testing and Precision Care for the Future
by Sarisha Jagasia, Erdal Tasci, Ying Zhuge, Kevin Camphausen and Andra Valentina Krauze
Biomedicines 2022, 10(12), 3029; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10123029 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Gliomas are the most common and aggressive primary brain tumors. Gliomas carry a poor prognosis because of the tumor’s resistance to radiation and chemotherapy leading to nearly universal recurrence. Recent advances in large-scale genomic research have allowed for the development of more targeted [...] Read more.
Gliomas are the most common and aggressive primary brain tumors. Gliomas carry a poor prognosis because of the tumor’s resistance to radiation and chemotherapy leading to nearly universal recurrence. Recent advances in large-scale genomic research have allowed for the development of more targeted therapies to treat glioma. While precision medicine can target specific molecular features in glioma, targeted therapies are often not feasible due to the lack of actionable markers and the high cost of molecular testing. This review summarizes the clinically relevant molecular features in glioma and the current cost of care for glioma patients, focusing on the molecular markers and meaningful clinical features that are linked to clinical outcomes and have a realistic possibility of being measured, which is a promising direction for precision medicine using artificial intelligence approaches. Full article
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12 pages, 1828 KiB  
Review
Conventional MRI-Derived Biomarkers of Adult-Type Diffuse Glioma Molecular Subtypes: A Comprehensive Review
by Paola Feraco, Rossana Franciosi, Lorena Picori, Federica Scalorbi and Cesare Gagliardo
Biomedicines 2022, 10(10), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10102490 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
The introduction of molecular criteria into the classification of diffuse gliomas has added interesting practical implications to glioma management. This has created a new clinical need for correlating imaging characteristics with glioma genotypes, also known as radiogenomics or imaging genomics. Although many studies [...] Read more.
The introduction of molecular criteria into the classification of diffuse gliomas has added interesting practical implications to glioma management. This has created a new clinical need for correlating imaging characteristics with glioma genotypes, also known as radiogenomics or imaging genomics. Although many studies have primarily focused on the use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for radiogenomics purposes, conventional MRI sequences remain the reference point in the study and characterization of brain tumors. A summary of the conventional imaging features of glioma molecular subtypes should be useful as a tool for daily diagnostic brain tumor management. Hence, this article aims to summarize the conventional MRI features of glioma molecular subtypes in light of the recent literature. Full article
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22 pages, 3797 KiB  
Review
The Hallmarks of Glioblastoma: Heterogeneity, Intercellular Crosstalk and Molecular Signature of Invasiveness and Progression
by Filippo Torrisi, Cristiana Alberghina, Simona D’Aprile, Anna M. Pavone, Lucia Longhitano, Sebastiano Giallongo, Daniele Tibullo, Michelino Di Rosa, Agata Zappalà, Francesco P. Cammarata, Giorgio Russo, Massimo Ippolito, Giacomo Cuttone, Giovanni Li Volti, Nunzio Vicario and Rosalba Parenti
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040806 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 6325
Abstract
In 2021 the World Health Organization published the fifth and latest version of the Central Nervous System tumors classification, which incorporates and summarizes a long list of updates from the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy work. Among [...] Read more.
In 2021 the World Health Organization published the fifth and latest version of the Central Nervous System tumors classification, which incorporates and summarizes a long list of updates from the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy work. Among the adult-type diffuse gliomas, glioblastoma represents most primary brain tumors in the neuro-oncology practice of adults. Despite massive efforts in the field of neuro-oncology diagnostics to ensure a proper taxonomy, the identification of glioblastoma-tumor subtypes is not accompanied by personalized therapies, and no improvements in terms of overall survival have been achieved so far, confirming the existence of open and unresolved issues. The aim of this review is to illustrate and elucidate the state of art regarding the foremost biological and molecular mechanisms that guide the beginning and the progression of this cancer, showing the salient features of tumor hallmarks in glioblastoma. Pathophysiology processes are discussed on molecular and cellular levels, highlighting the critical overlaps that are involved into the creation of a complex tumor microenvironment. The description of glioblastoma hallmarks shows how tumoral processes can be linked together, finding their involvement within distinct areas that are engaged for cancer-malignancy establishment and maintenance. The evidence presented provides the promising view that glioblastoma represents interconnected hallmarks that may led to a better understanding of tumor pathophysiology, therefore driving the development of new therapeutic strategies and approaches. Full article
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