Special Issue "Advanced Biomaterials for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Applications"

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assistant Prof. Nasim Annabi

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California--Los Angeles, United States
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomaterials, tissue engineering, tissue adhesives, sealants, surgical glues, nanomaterials, regenerative medicine, hydrogels, scaffolds, elastin like polypeptides, elastic biomaterials, photocrossliking

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,


The field of tissue engineering has been steadily evolving towards the development of biomimetic constructs that recapitulate the structural and functional complexity of human tissues. In this regard, the incorporation of state-of-the-art microfabrication techniques and advanced biomaterials has allowed the engineering of accurate in vitro models, which are being widely used for fundamental and translational biomedical research.

The ability to engineer tissue constructs with an unprecedented level of physiological accuracy has greatly benefited the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering. These advanced artificial tissues are being used to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal and pathological cardiovascular phenomena. Furthermore, the engineering of implantable blood vessels, heart valves, and myocardial tissues will have profound implications in the field of regenerative medicine and cardiovascular surgical procedures. However, several technical challenges remain in order to develop more sophisticated biomaterials that can be used to emulate the mechanical, topographical, compositional, and electrochemical features of bioengineered cardiovascular tissues. Different types of physiological cues, such as mechanical, biochemical, and electrical stimuli are increasingly being used to induce tissue maturation in vitro. In addition, recent advancements in biofabrication strategies such as additive manufacturing and 3D bioprinting have greatly enhanced the ability to manufacture highly representative cardiac tissues with increased translational potential.

This special issue focuses on the development of advanced biomaterials, as well as their incorporation with cutting edge biofabrication techniques to engineer novel cardiovascular tissue constructs. In particular, emphasis is being added on the use of smart biomaterials to recapitulate the biochemical, mechanical, electrical, and architectural properties of cardiovascular tissues for tissue engineering applications. The Special Issue is open for paper addressing:

  • Smart and multifunctional biomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering
  • Injectable biomaterials for cell and drug delivery
  • Electroconductive biomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering
  • In vitro mechanical and electrical stimulation for cardiovascular tissue maturation
  • Microfabrication approaches for engineering functional cardiovascular tissues
  • 3D printing of cardiac tissue constructs

We look forward to receiving your contributions to this special issue.


Dr. Nasim Annabi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Host Response and Neo-Tissue Development during Resorption of a Fast Degrading Supramolecular Electrospun Arterial Scaffold
Bioengineering 2018, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5030061
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
In situ vascular tissue engineering aims to regenerate vessels “at the target site” using synthetic scaffolds that are capable of inducing endogenous regeneration. Critical to the success of this approach is a fine balance between functional neo-tissue formation and scaffold degradation. Circulating immune
[...] Read more.
In situ vascular tissue engineering aims to regenerate vessels “at the target site” using synthetic scaffolds that are capable of inducing endogenous regeneration. Critical to the success of this approach is a fine balance between functional neo-tissue formation and scaffold degradation. Circulating immune cells are important regulators of this process as they drive the host response to the scaffold and they play a central role in scaffold resorption. Despite the progress made with synthetic scaffolds, little is known about the host response and neo-tissue development during and after scaffold resorption. In this study, we designed a fast-degrading biodegradable supramolecular scaffold for arterial applications and evaluated this development in vivo. Bisurea-modified polycaprolactone (PCL2000-U4U) was electrospun in tubular scaffolds and shielded by non-degradable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene in order to restrict transmural and transanastomotic cell ingrowth. In addition, this shield prevented graft failure, permitting the study of neo-tissue and host response development after degradation. Scaffolds were implanted in 60 healthy male Lewis rats as an interposition graft into the abdominal aorta and explanted at different time points up to 56 days after implantation to monitor sequential cell infiltration, differentiation, and tissue formation in the scaffold. Endogenous tissue formation started with an acute immune response, followed by a dominant presence of pro-inflammatory macrophages during the first 28 days. Next, a shift towards tissue-producing cells was observed, with a striking increase in α-Smooth Muscle Actin-positive cells and extracellular matrix by day 56. At that time, the scaffold was resorbed and immune markers were low. These results suggest that neo-tissue formation was still in progress, while the host response became quiescent, favoring a regenerative tissue outcome. Future studies should confirm long-term tissue homeostasis, but require the strengthening of the supramolecular scaffold if a non-shielded model will be used. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Cardiac Arrhythmia Classification by Multi-Layer Perceptron and Convolution Neural Networks
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020035
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
The electrocardiogram (ECG) plays an imperative role in the medical field, as it records heart signal over time and is used to discover numerous cardiovascular diseases. If a documented ECG signal has a certain irregularity in its predefined features, this is called arrhythmia,
[...] Read more.
The electrocardiogram (ECG) plays an imperative role in the medical field, as it records heart signal over time and is used to discover numerous cardiovascular diseases. If a documented ECG signal has a certain irregularity in its predefined features, this is called arrhythmia, the types of which include tachycardia, bradycardia, supraventricular arrhythmias, and ventricular, etc. This has encouraged us to do research that consists of distinguishing between several arrhythmias by using deep neural network algorithms such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and convolution neural network (CNN). The TensorFlow library that was established by Google for deep learning and machine learning is used in python to acquire the algorithms proposed here. The ECG databases accessible at PhysioBank.com and kaggle.com were used for training, testing, and validation of the MLP and CNN algorithms. The proposed algorithm consists of four hidden layers with weights, biases in MLP, and four-layer convolution neural networks which map ECG samples to the different classes of arrhythmia. The accuracy of the algorithm surpasses the performance of the current algorithms that have been developed by other cardiologists in both sensitivity and precision. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Understanding the Impact of Stent and Scaffold Material and Strut Design on Coronary Artery Thrombosis from the Basic and Clinical Points of View
Bioengineering 2018, 5(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5030071
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
The technology of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constantly being refined in order to overcome the shortcomings of present day technologies. Even though current generation metallic drug-eluting stents (DES) perform very well in the short-term, concerns still exist about their long-term efficacy. Late
[...] Read more.
The technology of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constantly being refined in order to overcome the shortcomings of present day technologies. Even though current generation metallic drug-eluting stents (DES) perform very well in the short-term, concerns still exist about their long-term efficacy. Late clinical complications including late stent thrombosis (ST), restenosis, and neoatherosclerosis still exist and many of these events may be attributed to either the metallic platform and/or the drug and polymer left behind in the arterial wall. To overcome this limitation, the concept of totally bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BRS) was invented with the idea that by eliminating long-term exposure of the vessel wall to the metal backbone, drug, and polymer, late outcomes would improve. The Absorb-bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb-BVS) represented the most advanced attempt to make such a device, with thicker struts, greater vessel surface area coverage and less radial force versus contemporary DES. Unfortunately, almost one year after its initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, this scaffold was withdrawn from the market due to declining devise utilization driven by the concerns about scaffold thrombosis (ScT) seen in both early and late time points. Additionally, the specific causes of ScT have not yet been fully elucidated. In this review, we discuss the platform, vascular response, and clinical data of past and current metallic coronary stents with the Absorb-BVS and newer generation BRS, concentrating on their material/design and the mechanisms of thrombotic complications from the pre-clinical, pathologic, and clinical viewpoints. Full article
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