Permafrost Peatlands under Rapid Climate Warming

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2022) | Viewed by 11141

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Institute of Biology and Biophysics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk Oblast, Tomsk 634050, Russia
Interests: biogeochemistry; surface water; soil; floodplain; permafrost thawing; peatlands; CO2 emissions; atmosphere; isotopes; Western Siberia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Permafrost peatlands are the planet’s most important organic carbon pool. The current thawing of these peatlands releases carbon that has accumulated in the permafrost for millennia. This release occurs mostly in the form of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). Understanding of these processes is crucial for predicting catastrophic climate scenarios and their global consequences for humanity.

This Special Issue welcomes articles dedicated to all aspects of the behavior of carbon between soil, waters, and atmosphere. Of special interest are papers dealing with the fate of greenhouse gases due to the impact of climate change and human activities on aquatic ecosystems of high latitude and mountain peatlands, including both anthropogenically altered and pristine regions. Papers on field, experimental, and modeling studies related to gas emission and uptake fluxes, carbon, nutrient, and metals in permafrost peatlands may focus on climate warming, permafrost thaw, floods, fire, and vegetation regime change, though other contexts are also of interest.

Dr. Sergey N. Vorobyev
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • peatlands
  • mountain peatlands
  • climate warming
  • permafrost thawing
  • organic carbon
  • greenhouse gases
  • emissions
  • atmosphere
  • surface water
  • aquatic ecosystems
  • vegetation
  • biogeochemistry
  • hydrology
  • paleogeography
  • modeling
  • remote sensing
  • fires
  • anthropogenic impact
  • pollution
  • socio-economic processes

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

18 pages, 5823 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions into the Atmosphere from the Northern Peatlands Using the Wetland-DNDC Simulation Model: A Case Study of the Great Vasyugan Mire, Western Siberia
by Alexander Mikhalchuk, Ludmila Borilo, Elena Burnashova, Yulia Kharanzhevskaya, Ekaterina Akerman, Natalia Chistyakova, Sergey N. Kirpotin, Oleg S. Pokrovsky and Sergey Vorobyev
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13122053 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
The peatlands of Western Siberia occupy an area of about 1 million km2 and act as important regulator of carbon exchange between the earth and the atmosphere. Extrapolation of the results of discrete field measurements of CO2 fluxes in bog ecosystems [...] Read more.
The peatlands of Western Siberia occupy an area of about 1 million km2 and act as important regulator of carbon exchange between the earth and the atmosphere. Extrapolation of the results of discrete field measurements of CO2 fluxes in bog ecosystems to such a territory is a difficult task, and one of the ways to overcome it is to use a simulation model such as DNDC. However, using this model with a specific territory requires ground verification to confirm its effectiveness. Here, we tested the DNDC model on the largest pristine bog ecosystem of the world, the Great Vasyugan Mire (GVM). The GVM of western Siberia is virtually undisturbed by anthropogenic activity and is the largest bog of Northern Eurasia (53,000 km2). Based on various ground-based observations, the performance of the Wetland-DNDC model was demonstrated (Thale coefficient 0.085 and R2 = 0.675 for CO2). Model input parameters specific to the GVM were constrained and model sensitivity to a wide range of input parameters was analyzed. The estimated annual terrestrial carbon fluxes in 2019 from the GVM test site are mainly controlled by plant respiration (61%) and forest floor degradation (38%). The net CO2 emission flux was 8600 kg C ha−1 year−1, which is in line with estimates from other independent studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permafrost Peatlands under Rapid Climate Warming)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 23098 KiB  
Article
Repeated Permafrost Formation and Degradation in Boreal Peatland Ecosystems in Relation to Climate Extremes, Fire, Ecological Shifts, and a Geomorphic Legacy
by Mark Torre Jorgenson, Mikhail Kanevskiy, Carl Roland, Kenneth Hill, David Schirokauer, Sarah Stehn, Britta Schroeder and Yuri Shur
Atmosphere 2022, 13(8), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13081170 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Permafrost formation and degradation creates a highly patchy mosaic of boreal peatland ecosystems in Alaska driven by climate, fire, and ecological changes. To assess the biophysical factors affecting permafrost dynamics, we monitored permafrost and ecological conditions in central Alaska from 2005 to 2021 [...] Read more.
Permafrost formation and degradation creates a highly patchy mosaic of boreal peatland ecosystems in Alaska driven by climate, fire, and ecological changes. To assess the biophysical factors affecting permafrost dynamics, we monitored permafrost and ecological conditions in central Alaska from 2005 to 2021 by measuring weather, land cover, topography, thaw depths, hydrology, soil properties, soil thermal regimes, and vegetation cover between burned (1990 fire) and unburned terrain. Climate data show large variations among years with occasional, extremely warm–wet summers and cold–snowless winters that affect permafrost stability. Microtopography and thaw depth surveys revealed both permafrost degradation and aggradation. Thaw depths were deeper in post-fire scrub compared to unburned black spruce and increased moderately during the last year, but analysis of historical imagery (1954–2019) revealed no increase in thermokarst rates due to fire. Recent permafrost formation was observed in older bogs due to an extremely cold–snowless winter in 2007. Soil sampling found peat extended to depths of 1.5–2.8 m with basal radiocarbon dates of ~5–7 ka bp, newly accumulating post-thermokarst peat, and evidence of repeated episodes of permafrost formation and degradation. Soil surface temperatures in post-fire scrub bogs were ~1 °C warmer than in undisturbed black spruce bogs, and thermokarst bogs and lakes were 3–5 °C warmer than black spruce bogs. Vegetation showed modest change after fire and large transformations after thermokarst. We conclude that extreme seasonal weather, ecological succession, fire, and a legacy of earlier geomorphic processes all affect the repeated formation and degradation of permafrost, and thus create a highly patchy mosaic of ecotypes resulting from widely varying ecological trajectories within boreal peatland ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permafrost Peatlands under Rapid Climate Warming)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3839 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Carbon Exchange from a Permafrost Peatland in the Great Hing’an Mountains Based on CoupModel
by Yue Li, Zhongmei Wan and Li Sun
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010044 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Climate change is accelerating its impact on northern ecosystems. Northern peatlands store a considerable amount of C, but their response to climate change remains highly uncertain. In order to explore the feedback of a peatland in the Great Hing’an Mountains to future climate [...] Read more.
Climate change is accelerating its impact on northern ecosystems. Northern peatlands store a considerable amount of C, but their response to climate change remains highly uncertain. In order to explore the feedback of a peatland in the Great Hing’an Mountains to future climate change, we simulated the response of the overall net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross primary production (GPP) during 2020–2100 under three representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Under the RCP2.6 and RCP6.0 scenarios, the carbon sink will increase slightly until 2100. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the carbon sink will follow a trend of gradual decrease after 2053. These results show that when meteorological factors, especially temperature, reach a certain degree, the carbon source/sink of the peatland ecosystem will be converted. In general, although the peatland will remain a carbon sink until the end of the 21st century, carbon sinks will decrease under the influence of climate change. Our results indicate that in the case of future climate warming, with the growing seasons experiencing overall dryer and warmer environments and changes in vegetation communities, peatland NEE, ER, and GPP will increase and lead to the increase in ecosystem carbon accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permafrost Peatlands under Rapid Climate Warming)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 12120 KiB  
Article
Pilot Studies of the Unique Highland Palsa Mire in Western Sayan (Tuva Republic, Russian Federation)
by Sergey N. Kirpotin, Zoia N. Kvasnikova, Sophia A. Potapova, Irina I. Volkova, Igor V. Volkov, Andrei I. Pyak, Arisiya A. Byzaakay, Larisa G. Kolesnichenko, Inna V. Lushchaeva, Aldynay O. Khovalyg, Irina V. Kuzhevskaia, Vladislav V. Chursin and Anna M. Peregon
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010032 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
In contrast to the well-studied West Siberian sector of frozen bogs in the Russian Arctic, the frozen mound bogs (so-called “palsas”) on the highlands of Southern Siberia have not yet been studied, but they are suspected to be even more sensitive to ongoing [...] Read more.
In contrast to the well-studied West Siberian sector of frozen bogs in the Russian Arctic, the frozen mound bogs (so-called “palsas”) on the highlands of Southern Siberia have not yet been studied, but they are suspected to be even more sensitive to ongoing climate change. This article provides the pilot study on palsa mire Kara-Sug in the highland areas of Western Sayan mountain system, Tuva Republic. The study focuses on the current state of palsa mire and surrounding landscapes, providing wide range of ecological characteristics while describing ongoing transformations of natural landscapes under a changing climate. The study used a variety of field and laboratory methods: the integrated landscape-ecological approach, the study of peat deposits, geobotanical analysis, and modern analysis of the chemical composition of water, peat, and soils. The study shows that highland palsa mires are distinguished by their compactness and high variety of cryogenic landforms leading to high floristic and ecosystem diversity compared with lowland palsa mires. This information brings new insights and contributes to a better understanding of extrazonal highland palsa mires, which remain a “white spot” in the global environmental sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permafrost Peatlands under Rapid Climate Warming)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3475 KiB  
Article
Plant Organic Matter in Palsa and Khasyrei Type Mires: Direct Observations in West Siberian Sub-Arctic
by Natalia P. Kosykh, Nina P. Mironycheva-Tokareva, Evgeniya K. Vishnyakova, Natalia G. Koronatova, Vera A. Stepanova, Larisa G. Kolesnychenko, Aldynai O. Khovalyg and Anna M. Peregon
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121612 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
This article presents the first results of long-term direct measurements of a few major components of carbon cycle in permafrost mire landforms in the sub-Arctic region of Western Siberia, Russia. It reveals the main features of geographical distribution of plant organic matter, including [...] Read more.
This article presents the first results of long-term direct measurements of a few major components of carbon cycle in permafrost mire landforms in the sub-Arctic region of Western Siberia, Russia. It reveals the main features of geographical distribution of plant organic matter, including both the above-ground and below-ground fractions of live biomass, the biomass of dead roots (mortmass), and net primary production (NPP) in peat-accumulating flat palsa mires and in “khasyrei”—ecosystems of drained lakes in thermokarst depression on epigenetic permafrost. The study based on original methods of direct field measurements elaborated by authors for northern peatlands. In northern taiga, the NPP of palsa mires was found in the range of 300–580 g m−2 yr−1 and an average biomass of 1800 g m−2; in khasyrei, it accounts for 1100 g m−2 yr−1 and 2000 g m−2 of NPP and live biomass, respectively. In forest tundra, the live biomass of palsa mires was found in the range of 1000–1800 g m−2, and in khasyrei it was 2300 g m−2. The NPP of palsa mires were in the range of 400–560 g m−2 yr−1, and in khasyrei it was 800 g m−2 yr−1. Overall, we conclude that the south–north climatic gradient in Western Siberia is the main driver of plant organic matter accumulation. It was found different across mire ecosystems of the same types but located in different bioclimatic regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permafrost Peatlands under Rapid Climate Warming)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop