Special Issue "Convection and Its Impact on Weather"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology and Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Peter Bechtold

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: convection; numerical weather prediction; boundary-layer clouds and turbulence; non-orographic gravity waves

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atmosphere dedicates this Special Issue to convection and its impact on weather. Convection is one of the most exciting and powerful phenomena in weather, particularly when it manifests in convective storms bearing strong winds, heavy rain, lightning, and hail. Convection is also the dominant vertical transport process in the atmosphere for water vapor and chemical tracers, and it accounts for roughly 75% of the latent heat released in the tropics. This heat is partly converted into the vertical overturning circulations of the Hadley and Walker cells and into horizontal motions, with tropical cyclones as prominent examples. The impact of convection is truly global, not only in the form of convectively coupled equatorial waves but also through teleconnections of tropical modes like the Madden–Julian oscillation with middle latitude circulation patterns.

Convection is probably the most challenging and uncertain process in numerical weather prediction. During the last 50 years, a lot of effort has gone into the development of convection parametrizations covering shallow boundary-layer convection, including cumulus and stratocumulus clouds, deep precipitating convection, and elevated convection in the form of altocumulus. However, processes such as the diurnal cycle of convection, the propagation of mesoscale convective systems, the inland penetration of wintry showers over warmer waters, and the momentum transport by convection have proven to be difficult to represent. With the ever increasing computational ressources, regional and global deep convection permitting simulations have become possible. Together with advances in ensemble predictions and data assimilation methods for convective phenomena assimilating new data from Doppler wind lidar, lightning data, microphysical observations,  as well as infrared and microwave satellite radiances, we will further improve the analysis of the atmospheric state and the role of convection and, eventually, improve its predictions.

We invite you to contribute articles to this Special Issue by reporting on observational, numerical, and analytical studies of convection in weather and weather forecasting including phenomena such as mesoscale convective systems, middle latitude convection in frontal systems and polar lows, as well as tropical cyclones and large-scale tropical modes and their teleconnections. Articles discussing and quantifying processes such as the atmospheric heat engine, the diurnal cycle of convection, convective momentum transport, tracer transport in the troposphere and into the stratosphere, as well as microphysical processes in convective clouds are also encouraged. Finally, we encourage articles that quantify the growth of convective disturbances and/or improve their predictability.

Dr. Peter Bechtold
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • convective processes and severe weather
  • convective-scale observations
  • analysis and theory of convection in larger-scale circulation
  • numerical weather prediction and convection parametrizatio

Published Papers (2 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-2
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Boreal Summer Intra-Seasonal Oscillations on the Heavy Rainfall Events in Taiwan during the 2017 Meiyu Season
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040205
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
PDF Full-text (12772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During May and June (the Meiyu season) of 2017, Taiwan was affected by three heavy frontal rainfall events, which led to large economic losses. Using satellite observations and reanalysis data, this study investigates the impact of boreal summer intra-seasonal oscillations (BSISOs, including a [...] Read more.
During May and June (the Meiyu season) of 2017, Taiwan was affected by three heavy frontal rainfall events, which led to large economic losses. Using satellite observations and reanalysis data, this study investigates the impact of boreal summer intra-seasonal oscillations (BSISOs, including a 30–60 day ISO mode named BSISO1 and a 10–30 day ISO mode named BSISO2) on the heavy rainfall events in Taiwan during the 2017 Meiyu season. Our examinations show that BSISO2 is more important than BSISO1 in determining the formation of heavy rainfall events in Taiwan during the 2017 Meiyu season. The heavy rainfall events generally formed in Taiwan at phases 4–6 of BSISO2, when the enhanced southwesterly wind and moisture flux convergence center propagate northward into the Taiwan area. In addition, we examined the forecast rainfall data (at lead times of one day to 16 days) obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEPgfs) and the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau Global Forecast System (CWBgfs). Our results show that the better the model’s capability in forecasting the BSISO2 index is, the better the model’s capability in forecasting the timing of rainfall formation in Taiwan during the 2017 Meiyu season is. These findings highlight the importance of BSISO2 in affecting the rainfall characteristics in East Asia during the Meiyu season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convection and Its Impact on Weather)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Robust Nocturnal and Early Morning Summer Rainfall Peaks over Continental East Asia in a Global Multiscale Modeling Framework
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020053
Received: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The diurnal cycle of convection and precipitation is an important atmospheric feature. It also poses a great challenge to global numerical atmospheric modeling. Over continental East Asia, most global models cannot well capture the nocturnal and early morning peaks of summer rainfall. This [...] Read more.
The diurnal cycle of convection and precipitation is an important atmospheric feature. It also poses a great challenge to global numerical atmospheric modeling. Over continental East Asia, most global models cannot well capture the nocturnal and early morning peaks of summer rainfall. This problem may lead to dry biases and limit the modeling skills. This study investigates this problem using a global multiscale modeling framework (Super-Parameterized CAM5; SPCAM5). The nocturnal and early morning peaks, which are almost absent in CAM5 and a coarser-resolution SPCAM5, can be successfully captured by SPCAM5 with a moderate increase in the horizontal resolution. On the lee side of the Tibetan Plateau, SPCAM5 generates robust eastward propagating rainfall signals, which correspond to the moving convective systems, as revealed by the heating and drying profiles. Over the eastern plain of China, the early morning peaks become more evident, corresponding to a stratiform-type heating structure in the midlevel. A sensitivity experiment with altered grid-scale forcing also suggests the important preconditioning role of the vertical moisture advection in regulating the early morning peaks. These results highlight the added value of representing multiscale processes to the successful simulation of the diurnal cycle over continental East Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convection and Its Impact on Weather)
Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of the paper: Article
Tentative title: Robust Nocturnal and Early Morning Diurnal Rainfall Signals over Continental East Asia in a Global Multiscale Modeling Framework
Authors: Yi Zhang
Affiliations: Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
Abstract:
As a continuation of a previous study of the authors, this paper explores the capability of a super-parameterized global model (SPCAM5) in simulating the nocturnal and early morning rainfall diurnal peaks over East Asia. By modifying some experimental configurations, we found that SPCAM5 generates robust eastward propagating rainfall signals in the lee side of the Tibetan Plateau, which correspond to the moving convective systems as revealed by the heating and drying profiles. Over the eastern plain of China, the early morning peak also becomes more evident in SPCAM5, corresponding to stratiform cloud type heating structures in the middle level.

Type of paper: Article
Tentative title: Analysis of a case of supercellular convection over Bulgaria: Observations and numerical simulations
Authors: Ivan Tsonevsky (1), Hristo Chipislki (2), Stefan Georgiev (3,4), Tsvetelina Dimitrova (3), Lilia Bocheva (5)
Affiliations:
(1) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, UK
(2) School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA
(3) Hail Suppression Agency, Bulgaria
(4) Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria
(5) National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgaria
Abstract
A powerful supercell developed over north-western Bulgaria in the afternoon hours on 15 May 2018. The total lifetime of this severe thunderstorm was over 5 hours and along its path it triggered multiple convective hazards such as strong wind gusts, large hail and flash floods, inflicting a lot of damage on property, cars and infrastructure. As the initiation of supercells over the region is still poorly understood, this study combines observation and model data in order to examine the evolution and predictability of the supercell.
Using a synthesis of conventional, satellite and radar observations, the first part of this study examines the initiation and subsequent development of the supercell. The presence of intense lightning activity as well as numerous supercellular signatures including a hook echo, a TBSS and a V-notch reveal the severity of the thunderstorm. These observations are then used to verify how well global ECMWF forecasts represented the large-scale environment in which the supercell developed. Finally, convection-allowing simulations with the WRF-ARW model initialized with data from ECMWF HRES and ENS systems are utilized in order to understand the processes leading to the initiation and maintenance of the supercell.

Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top