Special Issue "Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2020) | Viewed by 4042

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tamer F. Refaat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atmospheric carbon dioxide is a dominant greenhouse gas that influences global warming and climate change, and significantly contributes to the carbon cycle on Earth. An understanding of carbon dioxide sources, sinks, and transport flux is critical for developing assessments through the scientific community and informing policymakers. Mitigating carbon dioxide upsurge is a societal issue that requires continuous monitoring and evaluations through current measurement techniques and improved future technologies.

The goal of this Special Issue is to embrace a variety of established and ongoing research activities regarding techniques and technologies for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. In particular, active and passive remote sensors, which provide high spatial and temporal throughput, are needed to develop future warming estimates and climate predictions. In addition, in-situ sensors, which provide high-accuracy measurements, but with limited coverage, are required for remote sensing validations. Original contributions and reviews articles are encouraged on the following topics:

  • Updated performance models for carbon dioxide sensing techniques
  • Mature and improved technologies for carbon dioxide remote sensing
  • Techniques and technologies for carbon dioxide in-situ sensors
  • Sensor data processing and analysis
  • Carbon dioxide dry-air mixing ratio retrievals
  • Error budgets and mitigations

Dr. Tamer F. Refaat
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Active Remote Sensing
  • Passive Remote Sensing
  • In-Situ Sampling
  • Lidar
  • Differential Absorption Lidar
  • Mixing Ratio Retrieval

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Airborne Testing of 2-μm Pulsed IPDA Lidar for Active Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030412 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
The capability of an airborne 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar for high-accuracy and high-precision active remote sensing of weighted-average column dry-air volume mixing ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) is demonstrated. A test flight was conducted over the costal [...] Read more.
The capability of an airborne 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar for high-accuracy and high-precision active remote sensing of weighted-average column dry-air volume mixing ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) is demonstrated. A test flight was conducted over the costal oceanic region of the USA to assess instrument performance during severe weather. The IPDA targets CO2 R30 absorption line using high-energy 2-μm laser transmitter. HgCdTe avalanche photodiode detection system is used in the receiver. Updated instrument model included range correction factor to account for platform attitude. Error budget for XCO2 retrieval predicts lower random error for longer sensing column length. Systematic error is dominated by water vapor (H2O) through dry-air number density derivation, followed by H2O interference and ranging related uncertainties. IPDA XCO2 retrieval results in 404.43 ± 1.23 ppm, as compared to 405.49 ± 0.01 ppm from prediction models, using consistent reflectivity and steady elevation oceanic surface target. This translates to 0.26% and 0.30% relative accuracy and precision, respectively. During gradual spiral descend, IPDA results in 404.89 ± 1.19 ppm as compared model of 404.75 ± 0.73 ppm indicating 0.04% and 0.23% relative accuracy, respectively. Challenging cloud targets limited retrieval accuracy and precision to 2.56% and 4.78%, respectively, due to H2O and ranging errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide)
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Article
High Energy Parametric Laser Source and Frequency-Comb-Based Wavelength Reference for CO2 and Water Vapor DIAL in the 2 µm Region: Design and Pre-Development Experimentations
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030402 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
We present a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter concept designed around a Nested Cavity Optical Parametric Oscillator (NesCOPO) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA). The spectral bands are located around 2051 nm for CO2 probing and 1982 nm for H2 [...] Read more.
We present a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter concept designed around a Nested Cavity Optical Parametric Oscillator (NesCOPO) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA). The spectral bands are located around 2051 nm for CO2 probing and 1982 nm for H216O and HD16O water vapor isotopes. This laser is aimed at being integrated into an airborne lidar, intended to demonstrate future spaceborne instrument characteristics: high-energy (several tens of mJ nanosecond pulses) and high optical frequency stability (less than a few hundreds of kHz long term drift). For integration and efficiency purposes, the proposed design is oriented toward the use of state-of-the-art high aperture periodically poled nonlinear materials. This approach is supported by numerical calculations and preliminary experimental validations, showing that it is possible to achieve energies in the 40–50 mJ range, reaching the requirement levels for spaceborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) measurements. We also propose a frequency referencing technique based on beat note measurement of the laser signal with a self-stabilized optical frequency comb, which is expected to enable frequency measurement precisions better than a few 100 kHz over tens of seconds integration time, and will then be used to feed the cavity locking of the NesCOPO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide)
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Article
Calibration and Improved Speckle Statistics of IM-CW Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070737 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
An intensity modulated, continuous-wave (IM-CW) integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) fiber-based lidar is developed herein for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). There are two main challenges in improving measurement accuracy, which have not been given enough attention in the previous research: [...] Read more.
An intensity modulated, continuous-wave (IM-CW) integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) fiber-based lidar is developed herein for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). There are two main challenges in improving measurement accuracy, which have not been given enough attention in the previous research: one is that temperature sensitivity in optical components causes biases, due to the drift of component characteristic, and the other is that speckle noise deteriorates the signal-to-noise ratio. With the components thermally controlled, a target calibration accuracy of 0.003 dB is realized, corresponding to a CO2 concentration precision of better than 1 ppm for a 1 km path. A moving diffuser can reduce speckle noise by time averaging. In this paper, movement of the diffuser is substituted by the perturbation of the emitted laser beam by using a vibrating motor mounted on the optical antenna. Selecting on and off wavelengths with a small wavelength separation can improve the correlation between two laser speckle fields. These improvements result in the improved accuracy of the IPDA lidar system. Finally, the lidar performance was analyzed after the improvements described above were implemented. The diurnal variations of the atmospheric CO2 concentration using a topographic target were performed, and the results showed good agreement with the data measured by an in situ sensor. The root mean square (rms) of the deviation between the IPDA lidar and the in situ sensor was less than 1.4%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide)
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