Special Issue "Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Laeticia Petit
Website
Guest Editor
Photonics Laboratory, Tampere University, Tampere FI-33101, Finland
Interests: glass; glass–ceramic; structure; nanocrystal; optical fiber; thin film; photonics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Dominik Dorosz
Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Wilfried Blanc
Website
Guest Editor
Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS UMR 7010, Institut de Physique de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France
Interests: optical fibers; glass; nanoparticles; rare-earth ions; luminescence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Journal Applied Sciences (IF: 1.679; https://www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci) is currently running a Special Issue entitled "Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications".

Assist. Prof. Dr. Laeticia Petit of the Laboratory of Photonics, Tampere University of Technology (Finland), Prof. Dr. Dominik Dorosz of Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow (Poland) and Dr. Wilfried Blanc of Institut de Physique de Nice, Université Côte d'Azur (France) are serving as Guest Editors for this issue.

Over the past decades, research on the spectroscopic properties of rare-earths has quickly grown in importance, as rare-earth ions play a fundamental role in various optical applications from telecommunication and materials processing to sensing, and from medical diagnosis to energy to cite just a few applications. Intense levels of research have been focused on the development of new materials and designs. For example, phosphors activated by Eu2+, Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions find application in lighting and displays, whereas crystals and glasses doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ can be used for infrared-to-visible up-conversion. Although the number of luminescent materials in different matrices (crystalline, amorphous and glass ceramics; oxides, fluorides, chalcogenides, organics, etc.) or contained in molecular complexes has increased, there is a constant increase in demand for new rare-earth doped materials to extend their practical applications.

In this special issue, fundamental photoluminescent materials, properties and applications are considered. Topics to be covered include:

  • Advanced luminescence property characterization and related instrument development—absorption, emission, modulation, carrier lifetime…

  • Novel active materials, especially organic materials, crystalline materials, glasses and glass-ceramics

  • Novel active devices and emerging applications of rare-earth doped optical materials

  • Processing methods of active components in bulk, powder and waveguide forms

The submission deadline is 30 April 2018. You may send your manuscript now or up until the deadline. Submitted papers should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.

This special issue will be fully open access. Open access (unlimited and free access by readers) increases publicity and promotes more frequent citations, as indicated by several studies.

For further details on the submission process, please see the instructions for authors at the journal website.

We look forward to hearing from you.

Kind regards,

Assist. Prof. Dr. Laeticia Petit
Prof. Dr. Dominik Dorosz
Dr. Wilfried Blanc
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Rare-earths doping

  • Luminescence

  • Optical materials (organic, crystalline and amorphous materials)

  • Optical devices

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
SiO2-SnO2:Er3+ Glass-Ceramic Monoliths
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081335 - 10 Aug 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
The development of efficient luminescent systems, such as microcavities, solid-state lasers, integrated optical amplifiers, and optical sensors is the main topic in glass photonics. The building blocks of these systems are glass-ceramics activated by rare-earth ions because they exhibit specific morphologic, structural, and [...] Read more.
The development of efficient luminescent systems, such as microcavities, solid-state lasers, integrated optical amplifiers, and optical sensors is the main topic in glass photonics. The building blocks of these systems are glass-ceramics activated by rare-earth ions because they exhibit specific morphologic, structural, and spectroscopic properties. Among various materials that could be used as nanocrystals to be imbedded in a silica matrix, tin dioxide presents some interesting peculiarities, e.g., the presence of tin dioxide nanocrystals allows an increase in both solubility and emission of rare-earth ions. Here, we focus our attention on Er3+—doped silica—tin dioxide photonic glass-ceramics fabricated by a sol-gel route. Although the SiO2-SnO2:Er3+ could be fabricated in different forms, such as thin films, monoliths, and planar waveguides, we herein limit ourselves to the monoliths. The effective role of tin dioxide as a luminescence sensitizer for Er3+ ions is confirmed by spectroscopic measurements and detailed fabrication protocols are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Population Dynamics in 1.54-μm Telecom Transitions of Epitaxial (ErxSc1-x)2O3 Thin Layers for Coherent Population Manipulation: Weak Excitation Regime
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060874 - 25 May 2018
Abstract
We have investigated the energy transfers in the 1.54- μ m region of (Er,Sc) 2 O 3 epitaxial thin films grown on Si(111). The interplay of the energy transfers between Er ions in the different and the same symmetry sites makes the dynamics [...] Read more.
We have investigated the energy transfers in the 1.54- μ m region of (Er,Sc) 2 O 3 epitaxial thin films grown on Si(111). The interplay of the energy transfers between Er ions in the different and the same symmetry sites makes the dynamics complicated. To suppress the energy transfer upconversion, low power and resonant excitation of the third crystal-field level ( 4 I 13 / 2 : Y 3 ) of the Er 3 + site with C 3 i symmetry was employed. The time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of the Y 1 - Z 1 transition indicate the existence of two decay components having fast (10–100 μ s) and slow (0.1–1 ms) relaxation times in the range of 4–60 K. The model calculation including the inter-site energy transfers, the temperature-sensitive and -insensitive non-radiative relaxations fits the experimental results well. Moreover, the long averaged inter-Er 3 + distance obtained by decreasing Er concentration was found to reduce two kinds of non-radiative relaxation rates and the energy transfer rates between Er ions very effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
40 W All-Fiber Er/Yb MOPA System Using Self-Fabricated High-Power Passive Fiber Components
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060869 - 25 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this work, we demonstrate a three-stage all-fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system emitting over 40 W of continuous-wave (CW) output power at ~1.5 µm. The setup utilizes three self-fabricated high-power passive fiber components: a mode-field adaptor (MFA) and two types of [...] Read more.
In this work, we demonstrate a three-stage all-fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system emitting over 40 W of continuous-wave (CW) output power at ~1.5 µm. The setup utilizes three self-fabricated high-power passive fiber components: a mode-field adaptor (MFA) and two types of pump and signal power combiners. Their development allowed us to become independent from commercially available components, which are often incompatible with fibers used in the experimental setups, resulting in additional losses. A power combiner with single-mode (SM) signal fibers in a configuration (5 + 1) × 1 was used in the second stage of the MOPA system, which was based on an SM Er–Yb co-doped double-clad (DC) fiber. The fabricated MFA was used to connect the second amplifier stage based on SM fibers with the third amplifier stage based on large-mode-area (LMA) fibers. In the third stage of MOPA system, based on Er–Yb LMA DC fibers, we used the fabricated power combiner based on LMA-type signal fibers in a configuration (6 + 1) × 1. The presented three-stage MOPA system, utilizing self-fabricated high-power passive fiber components, enables amplification of an input signal of 10 mW up to 44 W of the CW power at the wavelengths of 1555 nm and 1563 nm, corresponding to a gain level of approximately 36.4 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
YAG Ceramic Nanocrystals Implementation into MCVD Technology of Active Optical Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050833 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Nanoparticle doping is an alternative approach the conventional solution doping method allowing the preparation of active optical fibers with improved optical and structural properties. The combination of the nanoparticle doping with MCVD process has brought new technological challenges. We present the preparation of [...] Read more.
Nanoparticle doping is an alternative approach the conventional solution doping method allowing the preparation of active optical fibers with improved optical and structural properties. The combination of the nanoparticle doping with MCVD process has brought new technological challenges. We present the preparation of fiber lasers doped with Er-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) nanocrystals. These nanocrystals, prepared by a hydrothermal reaction, were analyzed by several structural methods to determine the mean nanocrystal size and an effective hydrodynamic radius. The nanocrystals were incorporated into silica frits with various porosity made by the conventional MCVD process. The Er:YAG-doped silica frits were processed into preforms, which were drawn into optical fibers. We studied the effect of the nanocrystal size and frit’s porosity on the final structural and optical properties of prepared preforms and optical fibers. Selected optical fibers were tested as an active medium in a fiber ring laser setup and the characteristics of the laser were determined. Optimal laser properties were achieved for the fiber length of 7 m. The slope efficiency of the fiber laser was about 42%. Presented method can be simply extended to the deposition of other ceramic nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of Q-Switched Erbium Ion Doped Fluoride Glass Fiber Laser Operation Including Spontaneous Emission
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050803 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Partial differential equations are solved to perform a spatiotemporal analysis of Q-switched operation of a fluoride fiber laser doped with erbium ions. A method of lines is applied in order to reduce the partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. [...] Read more.
Partial differential equations are solved to perform a spatiotemporal analysis of Q-switched operation of a fluoride fiber laser doped with erbium ions. A method of lines is applied in order to reduce the partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The latter set is then solved using an algorithm designed for a solution of stiff equation problems. A spontaneous emission term is added to equations that model the dynamics of the photon population within the laser cavity for the infrared signal wave. The results show that, without an inclusion of the spontaneous emission term, the correct behavior of the photon population and energy level populations cannot be reproduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanocomposite Antimony-Germanate-Borate Glass Fibers Doped with Eu3+ Ions with Self-Assembling Silver Nanoparticles for Photonic Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050790 - 15 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Recently, nanocomposite glass materials embedded with silver particles and lanthanide ions have been widely investigated. The main interest is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon, which, as a result of nanometric particles’ interaction with external electromagnetic waves, has led to the enhancement of [...] Read more.
Recently, nanocomposite glass materials embedded with silver particles and lanthanide ions have been widely investigated. The main interest is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon, which, as a result of nanometric particles’ interaction with external electromagnetic waves, has led to the enhancement of rare-earth luminescence. In most works, nanoparticles are created in photonic glass by annealing for various times; however, the most discussion of this field in the literature is dedicated to the practical use of plasmonic effect in optical fibers. In this paper, the effect of silver ions on the luminescent properties of europium ions in antimony-germanate-borate (SGB) glass fibers is presented. The glass was synthesized by a standard melt-quenching technique, and glass fiber was drowned at 580 °C. The analysis of Ag+ ions content, as well as heat-treatment (hT) time, show an increase of almost 36% in emissions at 616 nm for glass fiber co-doped with 0.1Ag+/0.2Eu3+ ions after a 2 h annealing process. In the experiment, the interaction mechanism was investigated in terms of localized SPR, in each step of the glass fiber fabrication process. Moreover, we demonstrate that the self-assembling of silver nanoparticles onto a glass fiber surface is possible only for fiber co-doped with 0.6Ag/0.2Eu ions. This non-conventional, bottom-up technique of thin film was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Spectroscopic Investigation of Tm3+:Tellurite Glasses for 2-μm Lasing Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030333 - 27 Feb 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
We performed a comparative spectroscopic analysis on three novel Tm3+:tellurite-based glasses with the following compositions Tm2O3:TeO2-ZnO (TeZnTm), Tm2O3:TeO2-Nb2O5 (TeNbTm), and Tm3+:TeO2-K2 [...] Read more.
We performed a comparative spectroscopic analysis on three novel Tm3+:tellurite-based glasses with the following compositions Tm2O3:TeO2-ZnO (TeZnTm), Tm2O3:TeO2-Nb2O5 (TeNbTm), and Tm3+:TeO2-K2O-Nb2O5 (TeNbKTm), primarily for 2-μm laser applications. Tellurite glasses were prepared at different doping concentrations in order to investigate the effect of Tm3+ ion concentration as well as host composition on the stimulated emission cross sections and the luminescence quantum efficiencies. By performing Judd–Ofelt analysis, we determined the average radiative lifetimes of the 3H4 level to be 2.55 ± 0.07 ms, 2.76 ± 0.03 ms and 2.57 ± 0.20 ms for the TeZnTm, TeNbTm and TeNbKTm samples, respectively. We clearly observed the effect of the cross-relaxation, which becomes significant at higher Tm2O3 concentrations, leading to the quenching of 1460-nm emission and enhancement of 1860-nm emission. Furthermore, with increasing Tm2O3 concentrations, we observed a decrease in the fluorescence lifetimes as a result of the onset of non-radiative decay. For the 3H4 level, the highest obtained quantum efficiency was 32% for the samples with the lowest Tm2O3 ion concentration. For the 1860-nm emission band, the average emission cross section was determined to measure around 6.33 ± 0.34 × 10−21 cm2, revealing the potential of thulium-doped tellurite gain media for 2-μm laser applications in bulk and fiber configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of ZnO Addition and of Alpha Particle Irradiation on Various Properties of Er3+, Yb3+ Doped Phosphate Glasses
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(10), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7101094 - 24 Oct 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
New Er3+, Yb3+ codoped phosphate glasses with the (98-x) (0.50P2O5-0.40SrO-0.10Na2O) -0.5Er2O3-1.5Yb2O3-xZnO (in mol %) composition were prepared by melting process with up to 10 mol % [...] Read more.
New Er3+, Yb3+ codoped phosphate glasses with the (98-x) (0.50P2O5-0.40SrO-0.10Na2O) -0.5Er2O3-1.5Yb2O3-xZnO (in mol %) composition were prepared by melting process with up to 10 mol % of ZnO. The impact of the changes in the glass composition on the thermal, optical, structural properties was investigated. Using IR and Raman spectroscopies, we confirmed that the addition of ZnO up to 10 mol % leads to a depolymerization of the network without having a significant impact on the Er3+ and Yb3+ sites. We also discuss the effect of alpha particles irradiation. The glass with 2.5 mol % of ZnO was irradiated with 3 MeV alpha particles and a total fluence of 1012 α/cm2. After irradiation, this glass exhibits surface expansion (measured at ~200 nm, 1.5 months after the irradiation) and an increase in the surface roughness. The alpha particles irradiation is suspected to lead to changes in the spectroscopic properties of the glass. Finally, the photo-response of the glass was found to be reversible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare-Earth Doping for Optical Applications)
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