Special Issue "Geometrical Optics: Theoretical Achievements and Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 June 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. José Antonio Díaz Navas
Guest Editor
Departamento de Óptica, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: optical imaging; optical design; hyperspectral imaging; physiological optics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Before the electromagnetism mathematical formalism was established and light was revealed as an electromagnetic wave, Geometrical Optics ruled the propagation of luminous radiation as rays in a geometrical framework for centuries. Thus, rays can be considered as lines carrying electromagnetic energy in a 3D space oriented in all directions, and the wave nature of light can be avoided when the wavelength effects are negligible. When the Fermat Principle was stated, an analogy between ray trajectories and mechanics of point particles was formulated by Hamilton, and Hamiltonian Optics was developed providing useful results, and insights from the application of classical mechanics methods. Nowadays, Geometrical Optics approximation to problems is valuable when designing optical systems in an early stage and diffraction effects are not needed. This requires knowledge of lens surface geometry, refractive index distribution, reliable ray-tracing methods, and aberrations. Further, modern illumination systems design also benefits from Geometrical Optics methods for their successful creation. Last but not least, Hamiltonian Optics formalism, its geometric structure, and underlying symmetries provide methods for introducing wider topics in the quantum theory of light.

The aim of this Special Issue is to attract researchers from all around the world with an active interest in Geometrical Optics to present their latest achievements on the topic, including advances in surfaces and lens geometry knowledge, paraxial-based optical predesign of systems, ray-tracing methods including polarization, inverse problems such as determining refractive index distributions or surface geometries from ray-tracing, aberrations in optical systems, and Hamiltonian Optics methods. The accepted contributions will include theoretical considerations, and applications.

Dr. José Antonio Díaz Navas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Optical systems design
  • Paraxial methods
  • Surface geometry
  • Inverse problems
  • Imaging aberrations
  • Ray-tracing algorithms
  • Eikonals
  • Hamiltonian optics
  • Illumination
  • Polarization ray-tracing.

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Focus-Adjustable Head Mounted Display with Off-Axis System
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7931; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217931 - 09 Nov 2020
An off-axis system refers to an optical system in which the optical axis and the normal vector at the vertex of each surface do not match. An off-axis optical system can be applied in order to construct a thin and light optical system. [...] Read more.
An off-axis system refers to an optical system in which the optical axis and the normal vector at the vertex of each surface do not match. An off-axis optical system can be applied in order to construct a thin and light optical system. In particular, the optical system used for a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) must be designed asymmetrically, with respect to the optical axis. Because the vision of a human is different for each individual, HMD requires focus adjustment. The effective focal length (EFL) of the optical system must be calculated to obtain the focus adjustment. However, the off-axis optical system cannot be calculated by conventional methods. In this study, the EFL was calculated by rotating the coordinates of the rays near the optical axis by the angle of reflection or refraction at the intersection of each surface, with the rays coinciding with the optical axis. The magnitude of movement of the micro-display for focus adjustment was obtained from the calculated EFL, for a see-through type HMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geometrical Optics: Theoretical Achievements and Applications)
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