Special Issue "Advances in Food Flavor Analysis"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).
Related Special Issue: Advances in Food Flavor Analysis II

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Genovese
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, NA, Italy
Interests: volatile compounds analysis; in vivo and in vitro aroma release; wine aroma; olive oil aroma; coffee aroma; sensory analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Nicola Caporaso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Food Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
Interests: food quality; raw material characterisation; food aroma; rapid nondestructive food analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, “Advances in food flavor analysis”, which aims to present recent developments in the field of food science. Food flavor is an important key factor in consumer acceptability. It depends on the combined responses of olfaction, taste, and the somatosenses, and the cognitive processing in the brain of these inputs. Flavor release most commonly refers to the release of flavor components from food during eating. Volatile compounds released from food can interact in several ways with the human olfactory system, either orthonasally or retronasally, causing some changes in odor perception. Nonvolatile chemical stimuli are dissolved in the mouth, reaching several types of sensory receptors on the tongue, producing sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami taste. Another type of sensation, named somatosensation, occurs through the trigeminal nerve stimulation in the mouth, giving rise to pungency, astringency, metallic irritation, and thermal attributes. Flavor release is influenced by numerous factors, including chemical interactions between the food and the flavoring, physical barriers, as well as human factors. Research in this area can help the food industry to improve food quality as well as to develop new functional foods that are healthier and with improved flavor.

You are thus invited to submit your original research papers, mini-reviews, and perspective articles that include but are not limited to the volatile and nonvolatile flavor compounds of foods (including all aspects of the production chain which affect their production), the modality of the release of aroma compounds during and after eating, as well as consumer perception.

Dr. Alessandro Genovese
Dr. Nicola Caporaso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Volatile compounds analysis; Odor active compounds;Aroma release
  • Food oral processing
  • Saliva effect
  • Food matrix effect
  • Food processing
  • Oxidation
  • Fermentation
  • Antioxidant
  • Food quality
  • Food control
  • Solid phase microextraction
  • Gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry
  • Gas-chromatography/olfactometry
  • Retronasal aroma simulator
  • Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry
  • In vivo analysis
  • Sensory analysis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Evaluation of 3-Methylbutanoic Acid Methyl Ester as a Factor Influencing Flavor Cleanness in Arabica Specialty Coffee
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5413; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125413 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
This paper reports on the chemical compounds in arabica coffee beans with a high Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) cupping score, especially those in specialty coffee beans. We investigated the relationship between the chemical compounds and cupping scores by considering 16 types of Coffea [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the chemical compounds in arabica coffee beans with a high Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) cupping score, especially those in specialty coffee beans. We investigated the relationship between the chemical compounds and cupping scores by considering 16 types of Coffea arabica (arabica coffee) beans from Guatemala (SCA cupping score of 76.5–89.0 points). Non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based chemometric profiling indicated that specialty beans with a high cupping score contained considerable amounts of methyl-esterified compounds (MECs), including 3-methylbutanoic acid methyl ester (3-MBM), and other fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of MECs on flavor quality was verified by spiking the coffee brew with 3-MBM, which was the top-ranked component, as obtained through a regression model associated with cupping scores. Notably, 3-MBM was responsible for the fresh-fruity aroma and cleanness of the coffee brew. Although cleanness is a significant factor for specialty beans, the identification of compounds that contribute to cleanness has not been reported in previous research. The chemometric profiling approach coupled with spiking test validation will improve the identification and characterization of 3-MBM commonly found in arabica specialty beans. Therefore, 3-MBM, either alone or together with MECs, can be used as a marker in coffee production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Flavor Analysis)
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Article
Volatile Organic Compounds in Breads Prepared with Different Sourdoughs
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031330 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
Sourdough is an old example of a natural starter composed of a mixture of flour, water, and metabolites and is produced by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that influence bread aroma. In this work, four types of sourdough were used to [...] Read more.
Sourdough is an old example of a natural starter composed of a mixture of flour, water, and metabolites and is produced by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that influence bread aroma. In this work, four types of sourdough were used to prepare bread: one sourdough with yeast beer and three with bacteria and yeasts. The physicochemical parameters (pH, moisture, water activity, and organic acids) of the bread and sourdoughs were assessed. Lactic, acetic, and succinic acids were found in considerable amounts in sourdoughs and the corresponding breads. The fermentation quotient (molar ratio between lactic and acetic acid) ranged from 0.39 to 3.4 in sourdoughs. Lactic acid was prevalent in all types of bread and showed the highest value in bread made from sourdough with a 1.5 bacteria/yeast ratio (8722.24 mg/kg). Moreover, volatile organic compounds were identified in bread samples. Alcohols, aldehydes, and acetic acid were mainly found. The alcohol concentration ranged from 140.88 to 401.20 ng/g. Aldehydes ranged from 185.01 to 454.95 ng/g, and acetic acid ranged from 91.40 to 173.81 ng/g. Bread prepared from sourdough with a 1.5 bacteria/yeast ratio showed a considerable amount of alcohols and acetic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Flavor Analysis)
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Article
Free and Bound Volatile Aroma Compounds of ´Maraština´ Grapes as Influenced by Dehydration Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8928; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248928 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Dehydration or drying of grapes is one of the most important steps in the production of Croatian traditional dessert wine Prošek. The natural sun drying of grapes is the traditionally used method in Prošek production. Alternative methods, such as dehydration under controlled conditions, [...] Read more.
Dehydration or drying of grapes is one of the most important steps in the production of Croatian traditional dessert wine Prošek. The natural sun drying of grapes is the traditionally used method in Prošek production. Alternative methods, such as dehydration under controlled conditions, have been studied as safer and faster methods than the traditional sun drying but without precise knowledge of the effect on volatile compounds. The objective of this work was to study how dehydration of grapes carried out in a greenhouse and an environmentally controlled chamber impacts on the free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds of native grape cv. ‘Maraština’. The 36 volatile compounds were identified and quantified using headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The results showed that the aroma profile of dehydrated grapes was significantly different from that of fresh grapes. Regarding free forms, significant increases in the concentration of 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, o-cymene, linalool oxide, and terpinen-4-ol and geraniol were found in greenhouse-dried grapes, whereas increases in cis-limonene-epoxide, trans-limonene epoxide, and γ-hexalactone were higher in chamber-dried grapes compared to greenhouse-dried grapes. Glycosidically bound forms of o-cymene, linalool oxide, linalool, and terpinen-4-ol were increased in both types of drying, whereas β-damascenone was increased only in greenhouse-dried grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Flavor Analysis)
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Article
Key Aroma Compounds in Two Bavarian Gins
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7269; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207269 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
The characteristic, dominant flavor of gin is juniper, often within a complex aroma of other botanicals. The present study examined two gins from a distillery in the German state of Bavaria; one produced with 50 individual botanicals, the other with 15. The study [...] Read more.
The characteristic, dominant flavor of gin is juniper, often within a complex aroma of other botanicals. The present study examined two gins from a distillery in the German state of Bavaria; one produced with 50 individual botanicals, the other with 15. The study focused on characterizing the aroma profiles and identifying the key aroma-active compounds of the gins. Comparative sensory evaluations of the gins revealed marked differences in their aroma profiles, with the botanical-rich gin exhibiting more citrusy, orangey and fruity notes than the gin containing fewer botanicals. Instrumental analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) using aroma extract dilution assays (AEDA) identified terpenes as the dominant key aroma compounds, specifically limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, estragole and trans-anethole, with additional contributions from aldehydes, such as nonanal, and phenylpropanoids, such as eugenol and estragole. Selected compounds were quantified using stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and stabile isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) with GC-MS analysis. Further, odor thresholds and corresponding odor activity values (OAVs) of these compounds were calculated, with linalool exhibiting the highest OAV in both gins. The present analyses revealed how different botanicals alter the concentrations of key aroma compound constituents and elicit a shift in the overall aroma profile of the final spirit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Flavor Analysis)
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Article
The Use of a Targeted Must Oxygenation Method in the Process of Developing the Archival Potential of Natural Wine
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4810; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144810 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 542
Abstract
We examined the effect of two different technological processes for wine production on qualitative parameters of wine. We used the reductive method, which is currently considered to be the conventional method, and a targeted must oxidation method. We evaluated the basic physicochemical parameters [...] Read more.
We examined the effect of two different technological processes for wine production on qualitative parameters of wine. We used the reductive method, which is currently considered to be the conventional method, and a targeted must oxidation method. We evaluated the basic physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes of wine as well as the content of phenolic substances in wine, which are responsible for the oxidation processes. The vegetable materials used were the grape varieties, Welschriesling, Chardonnay, and Rheinriesling. The content of phenolic substances was determined by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), and the basic analytical parameters of wine were determined by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) spectrometry. The sensory analysis was evaluated according to the International Union of Oenologists. For each of the wines examined, the total content of phenolic substances decreased after the targeted oxidation method was applied. For the Welschriesling variety produced by the reduction method, the total content of the 19 monitored phenolic substances in the year 2015 was 88.37 mg·L−1, and for the wine produced by target oxygenation, it was 68.63 mg·L−1. This represents a decrease of 21.5%. In the year 2016, the decrease was 20.91%. By reducing the content of phenolic substances, the oxidation processes in wines are eliminated after bottling. Thus, there is less need for sulphating wines with a reduced content of phenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Flavor Analysis)
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Review

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Review
Flavor Chemistry of Virgin Olive Oil: An Overview
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041639 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Virgin olive oil (VOO) has unique chemical characteristics among all other vegetable oils which are of paramount importance for human health. VOO constituents are also responsible of its peculiar flavor, a complex sensation due to a combination of aroma, taste, texture, and mouthfeel [...] Read more.
Virgin olive oil (VOO) has unique chemical characteristics among all other vegetable oils which are of paramount importance for human health. VOO constituents are also responsible of its peculiar flavor, a complex sensation due to a combination of aroma, taste, texture, and mouthfeel or trigeminal sensations. VOO flavor depends primarily on the concentration and nature of volatile and phenolic compounds present in olive oil which can change dramatically depending on agronomical and technological factors. Another aspect that can change the flavor perception is linked to the oral process during olive oil tasting. In fact, in this case, some human physiological and matrix effects modulate the flavor release in the mouth. The present review aims to give an overview on VOO flavor, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms affecting its production and release during a tasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Flavor Analysis)
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Review
Interactions between Polyphenols and Volatile Compounds in Wine: A Literature Review on Physicochemical and Sensory Insights
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031157 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
Wine polyphenols (PPhs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are responsible for two of the main sensory characteristics in defining the complexity and quality of red wines: astringency and aroma. Wine VOCs’ volatility and solubility are strongly influenced by the matrix composition, including the [...] Read more.
Wine polyphenols (PPhs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are responsible for two of the main sensory characteristics in defining the complexity and quality of red wines: astringency and aroma. Wine VOCs’ volatility and solubility are strongly influenced by the matrix composition, including the interactions with PPhs. To date, these interactions have not been deeply studied, although the topic is of great interest in oenology. This article reviews the available knowledge on the main physicochemical and sensory effects of polyphenols on the release and perception of wine aromas in orthonasal and retronasal conditions. It describes the molecular insights and the phenomena that can modify VOCs behavior, according to the different chemical classes. It introduces the possible impact of saliva on aroma release and perception through the modulation of polyphenols–aroma compounds interactions. Limitations and possible gaps to overcome are presented together with updated approaches used to investigate those interactions and their effects, as well as future perspectives on the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Flavor Analysis)
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