Special Issue "The Tools and Technical Bases to Reconstruct the Earth and Planetary Geological Processes and Their Outcomes"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences and Geography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jungrack Kim
Website
Guest Editor
University of Seoul
Interests: Remote Sensing on Earth and planetary surfaces
Dr. Tejpal Singh

Guest Editor
CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh
Interests: Tectonics and geomorphology of Earth systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geomorphic/geological processes on the Earth and planetary surfaces and their shallow subsurface include the scientific key codes to understand the past evolutions and the future destinies of our world. Therefore, monitoring and reconstructing the temporal and spatial evolution processes have been major interests of the scientific community. However, as demonstrated by current climate change research, geomorphological and geological processes, which usually run over long time spans and spatial domains, are not easily reconstructed or monitored by conventional observation methods and require novel technological developments that conquer the spatial and temporal resolution limits of our observations. Recent progress and achievements to satisfy such demands are demonstrated by numerous in-orbital remote sensing missions, for instance, space-borne altimeters, multi-pass synthetic aperture radar and stereo optical camera, and on-site measurement/tracing toolkits, including structure from motion techniques and light-weighted drone observations. It also includes the technology to measure the precise temporal origin, such as optically stimulated luminescence and the modeling scheme to simulate long term natural/anthropogenic processes on the topographies. The outcomes from those technical bases are frequently fed forward to the data fusion stage and merged into a big data analysis scheme; then the final outcomes unveil the sophisticated consequences of geologic and geomorphic processes on terrestrial and extraterrestrials bodies.

Therefore, this Special Issue aims to provide reviews for innovative tools and technologies for exploring geomorphic/geological processes on the earth and planetary surface (and even the shallow sub-surface). The tools and technology imply that front-end approaches are necessary to identify, monitor, and model the past evolution and ongoing processes of geology and geomorphology; thus, all contributions from the development of in-orbital remote sensing algorithms, new sensor design, and advanced surface dating methodology are encouraged. A novel modeling scheme to simulate the long term geologic and geomorphic processes can be also included. It is expected that the technical design of each topic is presented together with its practical applications and/or simulation outcomes on any involved test areas. The spatial domain of contributed technical achievement is not limited only to terrestrial surfaces but can be extended to any solid planet or satellite and their shallow sub-surfaces as long as the target domain has involvement with geological and geomorphic processes.

Dr. Jungrack Kim
Dr. Tejpal Singh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Automated Discontinuity Detection and Reconstruction in Subsurface Environment of Mars Using Deep Learning: A Case Study of SHARAD Observation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072279 - 27 Mar 2020
Abstract
Machine learning (ML) algorithmic developments and improvements in Earth and planetary science are expected to bring enormous benefits for areas such as geospatial database construction, automated geological feature reconstruction, and surface dating. In this study, we aim to develop a deep learning (DL) [...] Read more.
Machine learning (ML) algorithmic developments and improvements in Earth and planetary science are expected to bring enormous benefits for areas such as geospatial database construction, automated geological feature reconstruction, and surface dating. In this study, we aim to develop a deep learning (DL) approach to reconstruct the subsurface discontinuities in the subsurface environment of Mars employing the echoes of the Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Although SHARAD has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface, the interpretation of the radar echo of SHARAD is a challenging task considering the vast stocks of datasets and the noisy signal. Therefore, we introduced a 3D subsurface mapping strategy consisting of radar echo pre-processors and a DL algorithm to automatically detect subsurface discontinuities. The developed components the of DL algorithm were synthesized into a subsurface mapping scheme and applied over a few target areas such as mid-latitude lobate debris aprons (LDAs), polar deposits and shallow icy bodies around the Phoenix landing site. The outcomes of the subsurface discontinuity detection scheme were rigorously validated by computing several quality metrics such as accuracy, recall, Jaccard index, etc. In the context of undergoing development and its output, we expect to automatically trace the shapes of Martian subsurface icy structures with further improvements in the DL algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Coordinate System for Constructing Spherical Grid Systems
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020655 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
In astronomy, physics, climate modeling, geoscience, planetary science, and many other disciplines, the mass of data often comes from spherical sampling. Therefore, establishing an efficient and distortion-free representation of spherical data is essential. This paper introduces a novel spherical (global) coordinate system that [...] Read more.
In astronomy, physics, climate modeling, geoscience, planetary science, and many other disciplines, the mass of data often comes from spherical sampling. Therefore, establishing an efficient and distortion-free representation of spherical data is essential. This paper introduces a novel spherical (global) coordinate system that is free of singularity. Contrary to classical coordinates, such as Cartesian or spherical polar systems, the proposed coordinate system is naturally defined on the spherical surface. The basic idea of this coordinate system originated from the classical planar barycentric coordinates that describe the positions of points on a plane concerning the vertices of a given planar triangle; analogously, spherical area coordinates (SACs) describe the positions of points on a sphere concerning the vertices of a given spherical triangle. In particular, the global coordinate system is obtained by decomposing the globe into several identical triangular regions, constructing local coordinates for each region, and then combining them. Once the SACs have been established, the coordinate isolines form a new class of global grid systems. This kind of grid system has some useful properties: the grid cells exhaustively cover the globe without overlapping and have the same shape, and the grid system has a congruent hierarchical structure and simple relationship with traditional coordinates. These beneficial characteristics are suitable for organizing, representing, and analyzing spatial data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smartphone-Based Photogrammetry for the 3D Modeling of a Geomorphological Structure
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3884; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183884 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The geomatic survey in the speleological field is one of the main activities that allows for the adding of both a scientific and popular value to cave exploration, and it is of fundamental importance for a detailed knowledge of the hypogean cavity. Today, [...] Read more.
The geomatic survey in the speleological field is one of the main activities that allows for the adding of both a scientific and popular value to cave exploration, and it is of fundamental importance for a detailed knowledge of the hypogean cavity. Today, the available instruments, such as laser scanners and metric cameras, allow us to quickly acquire data and obtain accurate three-dimensional models, but they are still expensive, require a careful planning phase of the survey, as well as some operator experience for their management. This work analyzes the performance of a smartphone device for a close-range photogrammetry approach for the extraction of accurate three-dimensional information of an underground cave. The image datasets that were acquired with a high-end smartphone were processed using the Structure from Motion (SfM)-based approach for dense point cloud generation: different image-matching algorithms implemented in a commercial and an open source software and in a smartphone application were tested. In order to assess the reachable accuracy of the proposed procedure, the achieved results were compared with a reference dense point cloud obtained with a professional camera or a terrestrial laser scanner. The approach has shown a good performance in terms of geometrical accuracies, computational time and applicability. Full article
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