Special Issue "Nano Reinforced Cement and Concrete Composites"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pedro Raposeiro da Silva
Website
Guest Editor
CERIS, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, Área Departamental de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: self-compacting concrete; concrete microstructure and durability; sustainable construction (recycled aggregates in concrete and mortars); construction technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Luis Evangelista
Website
Guest Editor
CERIS, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, Área Departamental de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: construction sustainability; use of recycled materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, the use of nanomaterials (NM) to improve the performance of cement and concrete matrixes appears as a potential alternative to the exclusive use of Portland cement (PC). Similarly, there is currently no doubt in the construction industry (CI) about the pressing need to reduce consumption of PC. The CI represents the world's third-largest industrial energy consumer, and the component related to the production of PC alone represents 7% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions globally. PC is undoubtedly the most used material in construction in terms of its relative volume. Raw materials for PC production are generally plentiful, and available throughout the world. In this sense, it is imperative that the cement industry obtains viable technical solutions that allow the reduction of PC consumption. That reduction can be achieved either by its direct replacement with another material (as for example with the use of fly ash), or by improving cement and concrete matrix performance with the addition of new materials, such as NM. This second option is quite interesting since it allows, for example, maintaining the cement and concrete matrix properties/characteristics, reducing PC consumption by adding a tiny amount of NM.

The NM evolution has allowed the production of new cement-based nanocomposites with previously unimaginable properties. In general, NM can be grouped into three main types: Zero-dimensional (0D) nanoparticles, such as nanosilica; one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers, such as carbon nanotubes; and lastly, the most recent two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet, i.e., graphene oxide (GO). These materials, especially 1D and 2D NM, have the ability to, in very small dosages, strengthen the cement and concrete matrix through reinforcement and pore refinement. This allows for conventional cement composites to achieve higher performance levels or to maintain the same performance levels with decreasing PC consumption.

The aim of this Special Issue is to explore the potential of use of nanomaterials in the production of mortar and concrete composites and to discuss new opportunities in this field.

Prof. Dr. Pedro Raposeiro da Silva
Prof. Dr. Luis Evangelista
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sustainable construction
  • nanomaterials
  • cement-based nanocomposites
  • concrete-based nanocomposites
  • nanosilica
  • nanofibers
  • graphene oxide
  • Portland cement
  • concrete durability
  • life cycle assessment
  • life cycle costs
  • case studies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nanomaterials’ Influence on the Performance of Thermal Insulating Mortars—A Statistical Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072219 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
This research provides a statistical analysis of the mechanical and physical properties of thermal insulating mortars developed in the laboratory and by the industry with and without the incorporation of nanomaterials. This was evaluated by carrying out a uni and bivariate analysis, principal [...] Read more.
This research provides a statistical analysis of the mechanical and physical properties of thermal insulating mortars developed in the laboratory and by the industry with and without the incorporation of nanomaterials. This was evaluated by carrying out a uni and bivariate analysis, principal components and factor analysis, cluster analysis, and the application of regression models. The results show that it is possible to find associations between these mortars’ properties, but also how these formulations’ development can be approached in the future to achieve better overall performance. They also show that the use of nanomaterials, namely silica aerogel, significantly improved the mortars’ thermal insulation capabilities, allowing us to obtain mortar formulations with thermal conductivities below the values presented by classic thermal insulating materials. Therefore, with this investigation, other researchers can support their product-development choices when incorporating nanomaterials to reduce mortars’ thermal conductivities, increasing their production efficiency, overall multifunctionality, and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Reinforced Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of CNT Dosages in Cement Composites on the Mechanical Properties and Hydration Reaction with Low Water-to-Binder Ratio
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4630; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214630 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the potential use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which are an innovative construction material preferred by many researchers. Long-term microstructure enhancement and on-site application are major reasons to conduct research on CNT-cement composites; thus, a study on mechanical properties [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the potential use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which are an innovative construction material preferred by many researchers. Long-term microstructure enhancement and on-site application are major reasons to conduct research on CNT-cement composites; thus, a study on mechanical properties as well as the thermal conductivity of CNT-cement composites was carried out. As the CNT content increased, the thermal conductivity of CNT-cement composites was also enhanced. In addition, a couple of microstructure analyses such as isothermal calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) for observing hydration reaction rate and types of hydration products were conducted to establish the advantage of CNT use in cement composites. Strength development of CNT-cement composites at early ages was slow, although eventually CNTs containing water developed equivalent level of strengths at last as internal curing effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Reinforced Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Ordinary Portland Cement Using the New Colloidal Nano-Silica Mixing Method
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4358; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204358 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
This study applies a new method of mixing colloidal nano-silica (CNS). Previous studies have used powdered nano-silica or colloidal nano-silica and applied a binder weight substitution method. In this study, we tried to use ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a binder and replace [...] Read more.
This study applies a new method of mixing colloidal nano-silica (CNS). Previous studies have used powdered nano-silica or colloidal nano-silica and applied a binder weight substitution method. In this study, we tried to use ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a binder and replace CNS with weight of mixing water. CNS was replaced by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the mixing water weight. The flow value, setting time, compressive strength, hydration reactant (X-ray diffractometer; XRD), pore structure (mercury intrusion porosimetry; MIP), thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were performed. Experimental results show that the new substitution method improves the mechanical and microstructural properties through two effects. One is that the weight substitution of the mixing water shows a homogeneous dispersion effect of the nano-silica particles. The other is the effect of decreasing the w/b ratio when the CNS is substituted because the CNS is more dense than the mixing water. Therefore, we confirmed the applicability of mixing water weight replacement method as a new method of mixing CNS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Reinforced Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
State-of-the-Art of Colloidal Silica-Based Soil Liquefaction Mitigation: An Emerging Technique for Ground Improvement
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010015 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
In the booming field of nanotechnology, colloidal silica (CS) has been introduced for ground improvement and liquefaction mitigation. It possesses a great ability to restrain pore pressure generation during seismic events by using an innovative stabilization technique, with the advantages of being a [...] Read more.
In the booming field of nanotechnology, colloidal silica (CS) has been introduced for ground improvement and liquefaction mitigation. It possesses a great ability to restrain pore pressure generation during seismic events by using an innovative stabilization technique, with the advantages of being a cost-effective, low disturbance, and environmentally friendly method. This paper firstly introduces molecular structures and some physical properties of CS, which are of great importance in the practical application of CS. Then, evidence that can justify the feasibility of CS transport in loose sand layers is demonstrated, summarizing the crucial factors that determine the rate of CS delivery. Thereafter, four chemical and physical methods that can examine the grouting quality are summed and appraised. Silica content and chloride ion concentration are two effective indicators recommended in this paper to judge CS converge. Finally, the evidence from the elemental tests, model tests, and field tests is reviewed in order to demonstrate CS’s ability to inhibit pore water pressure and lower liquefaction risk. Based on the conclusions drawn in previous literature, this paper refines the concept of CS concentration and curing time being the two dominant factors that determine the strengthening effect. The objective of this work is to review CS treatment methodologies and emphasize the critical factors that influence both CS delivery and the ground improving effect. Besides, it also aims to provide references for optimizing the approaches of CS transport and promoting its responsible use in mitigating liquefaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Reinforced Cement and Concrete Composites)
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