Special Issue "Cellulose Conversion Technology"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jose M. Campos-Martin
Website
Guest Editor
Sustainable Energy and Chemistry Group (EQS Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Marie Curie, 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: novel homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes; lignocellulosic biomass treatment by low temperature and energy methods; hydrotreatment of vegetable oils and fats; alternative elimination de sulfur from fuel: oxidative desulfurization (ODS) or adsorption
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The transition from the current economy, based on fossil fuels and products, to a new economy, based on the use of biomass, is challenging. Biorefineries have an essential role to play in sustainable production of biofuels, bioproducts and biomaterials as their primary purpose is to integrate industrial processing of biomass, thus making bioprocessing more efficient and competitive.

Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as a very promising feedstock to be used in biorefineries as source for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and other biomass-derived products with high added-value products. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials obtained from energy crops, wood and agricultural residues represent the most abundant global source of renewable biomass. Among the components of lignocellulosic biomass, cellulose is a very interesting starting point to produce a very broad kind of products of interest. However, the low reactivity of cellulose has prevented its use in chemical industry except for the paper manufacturing. Cellulose can be transformed directly to functionalized celluloses that have large number of applications or the preparation of nanocelluloses, an emerging material with impress properties. On the other hand, cellulose can be transformed in small molecules like glucose, ethanol, sorbitol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), γ-valerolactone, gluconic acid, and other derivatives, which have been expected as feedstock in the bio-based industry.

For these reasons, the study of “Cellulose Conversion Technology” is a hot topic in scientific research for a broad number of scientific disciplines that cover professionals working in areas of materials, chemistry, catalysis and engineering.

Dr. Jose M. Campos-Martin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Cellulose
  • Sorbitol
  • Gluconic acid
  • γ-valerolactone
  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Nanocellulose

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Chemical and Enzymatic Treatment of Hemp Biomass for Bioethanol Production
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5348; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245348 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study chemical and enzymatic treatment of hemp biomass were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In the first stage, physical and chemical pretreatment of hemp biomass was carried out. It was found that the Tygra variety is susceptible to alkaline treatment [...] Read more.
In this study chemical and enzymatic treatment of hemp biomass were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In the first stage, physical and chemical pretreatment of hemp biomass was carried out. It was found that the Tygra variety is susceptible to alkaline treatment at an optimum concentration of 2% NaOH. Next, the effect of NaOH on the value of reducing sugars and the chemical composition of the solid fraction before and after the treatment was determined. Hemp biomass before and after the chemical treatment was analysed by FTIR spectra and SEM. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis, i.e., substrate content, temperature, time, pH and dose of enzyme by means of Response Surface Methodology on glucose content was determined. The highest glucose value was observed at 50 °C, in time process between 48 and 72 h, and the dose of enzyme was not less than 20 FPU·g−1. After the optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis two processes of ethanol fermentation from hemp biomass, SHF and SSF, were carried out. In the SHF process a 40% higher concentration of ethanol was obtained (10.51 g/L). In conclusion, hemp biomass was found to be an interesting and promising source to be used for bioethanol production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Conversion Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Cellulases Production by a Trichoderma sp. Using Food Manufacturing Wastes
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4419; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204419 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The cost of cellulase enzymes is a main contributor to the operational cost of a biorefinery producing ethanol from lignocellulosic material. Therefore, onsite production of enzymes using low-value substrates might be an option to make a bio-based facility more economical, while improving environmental [...] Read more.
The cost of cellulase enzymes is a main contributor to the operational cost of a biorefinery producing ethanol from lignocellulosic material. Therefore, onsite production of enzymes using low-value substrates might be an option to make a bio-based facility more economical, while improving environmental sustainability. Food manufacturing wastes (FMWs), such as olive mill solids, tomato pomace, and grape pomace, are some of the main wastes produced by the food industry in Chile. FMWs are mostly composed of lignocellulosic material, which is primarily made of cellulose. A fungal strain obtained from olive stones was identified as a Trichoderma sp. and characterized by molecular and morphological techniques. This strain was able to grow on three FMWs in both liquid and solid cultures. In liquid cultures, cellulase and β-glucosidase activities from the culture supernatants were quantified. Identification of extracellular proteins using mass spectrometry revealed the presence of endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. Cellulase production from agroindustrial residues could be an excellent opportunity to utilize FMWs as well as decrease enzyme production costs in biorefinery processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Conversion Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass by Selective Precipitation from Ionic Liquid Dissolution
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091862 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
We propose the treatment of barley straw with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIMAcO] ionic liquids (ILs) and subsequent precipitation with antisolvent mixtures, thus allowing the separation of the sugar-rich fractions (cellulose and hemicellulose) from the lignin fraction. For this purpose, different concentration ranges of acetone:water [...] Read more.
We propose the treatment of barley straw with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIMAcO] ionic liquids (ILs) and subsequent precipitation with antisolvent mixtures, thus allowing the separation of the sugar-rich fractions (cellulose and hemicellulose) from the lignin fraction. For this purpose, different concentration ranges of acetone:water antisolvent mixtures were studied. In all cases, a high recovery percentage and a high and effective separation of fractions was achieved for 1:1 acetone:water. The fractionated lignocellulosic compounds were studied by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance characterization techniques. This method allows the possibility of reusing IL, confirming the versatility of the established method. The fraction rich in cellulose and hemicellulose was subjected to acid hydrolysis (0.2 mol/L H2SO4) for 5 h at 140 °C, obtaining a yield of total reducing sugars of approximately 80%, much higher than those obtained in non-pretreated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Conversion Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and their Application in the Dissolution of Cellulose
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091750 - 27 Apr 2019
Abstract
In this work, several kinds of quaternary ammonium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (QA RTILs) are synthesized by alkylation and ion-exchange reactions for the rapid dissolution of cellulose. The applications of cellulose materials have been limited due to their poor solubility in conventional organic solvents, [...] Read more.
In this work, several kinds of quaternary ammonium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (QA RTILs) are synthesized by alkylation and ion-exchange reactions for the rapid dissolution of cellulose. The applications of cellulose materials have been limited due to their poor solubility in conventional organic solvents, because of a high degree of structural regularity and a large number of hydrogen bonds. The prepared ionic liquids were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that N,N,N-triethylhexan-1-aminium acetate (N6222OAc), tetrahexylammonium acetate (N6666OAc), and N,N,N,N′,N′,N′-hexaethyldecane-1,10-diaminium acetate (C10(N222OAc)2) exhibited good cellulose-dissolution without any pretreatment. The regenerated cellulose films with a low degree of crystallization of the cellulose II phase were also prepared easily in this process using N6222OAc due to its polar and small cation. These QA RTILs can be used as non-derivatizing solvents for cellulose and can also be easily recycled because of their thermostable and nonvolatile properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Conversion Technology)
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