Recent Advances in Animals Anesthesia, Analgesia and Pain Management during Gonadectomy

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 7393

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Interests: inhalation anesthetics; pain management; field condition anesthesia; locoregional anesthesia; total intravenous anesthesia

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Interests: veterinary anesthesia; pain management; osteoarthritis; mechanical ventilation; locoregional anesthesia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

This Special Issue, entitled “Recent Advances in Animals Anesthesia, Analgesia and Pain Management during Gonadectomy”, addresses the advancements made in the field of veterinary medicine pertaining to the anesthesia, analgesia, and pain management of animals during gonadectomy procedures. The Issue covers a wide range of topics related to the administration of anesthesia and pain management drugs, as well as the use of various surgical techniques and protocols to minimize pain and discomfort during and after surgery. The aim of the Special Issue includes research on new drugs and techniques, case studies on the effectiveness of current practices and discussions on the ethical considerations surrounding the use of anesthesia and pain management in veterinary medicine. Overall, this Special Issue provides valuable insights into the best practices for ensuring the comfort and well-being of animals undergoing gonadectomy procedures.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Nicolo Columbano
Dr. Alberto Maria Crovace
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • anesthesia
  • analgesia
  • pain
  • pain management
  • nociception
  • gonadectomy
  • ovariectomy
  • ovariohysterectomy
  • orchiectomy
  • small animals
  • large animals

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Effective Tissue Concentrations of Injectable Lidocaine and a Lidocaine-Impregnated Latex Band for Castration in Calves
by Joseph A. Ross, Steven M. Roche, Kendall Beaugrand, Crystal Schatz, Ann Hammad, Brenda J. Ralston, Andrea M. Hanson, Nicholas Allan and Merle Olson
Animals 2024, 14(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060977 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the effective tissue concentrations of the current standard of care for pain mitigation in calves during castration (injectable lidocaine) and to assess the ability of a lidocaine-loaded elastration band (LLB) to deliver effective concentrations into the scrotal tissue [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the effective tissue concentrations of the current standard of care for pain mitigation in calves during castration (injectable lidocaine) and to assess the ability of a lidocaine-loaded elastration band (LLB) to deliver effective concentrations into the scrotal tissue over time. This study comprised two different trials: (1) effective concentrations of injectable lidocaine in the scrotal tissue; and (2) the in vivo delivery of effective concentrations of lidocaine from LLBs placed on the calf scrotums. Sensation in the scrotal tissue was assessed by electrocutaneous stimulation. Injectable lidocaine allowed for short-term anesthesia for up to 60 min, highlighting the importance of finding additional strategies to mitigate long-term pain. An elastomeric ligation band impregnated with lidocaine could provide a suitable alternative, as it yielded tissue levels of lidocaine that approached EC50 and exceeded EC95 at 2 and 72 h following application, respectively, and remained above those levels for at least 28 days after application. Further studies are warranted to compare the use of LLBs to injectable local anesthetics. Full article
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23 pages, 571 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Lidocam Topical Gel (4% Lidocaine—0.3% Meloxicam) for Pain and Inflammation Management during Castration and Tail Docking in Piglets
by Denis Nagel, Brenda Ralston, Andrea Hanson, Les Burwash, Heather Matheson-Bird, Barbara Olson, Crystal Schatz and Merle Olson
Animals 2024, 14(6), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060930 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 770
Abstract
(1) Background: It has been well established that castration and tail docking are both painful during and following the procedure, yet there are limited convenient and effective products to address both short-term and long-term pain. Lidocam Topical Gel (LTG) (4% lidocaine and 0.3% [...] Read more.
(1) Background: It has been well established that castration and tail docking are both painful during and following the procedure, yet there are limited convenient and effective products to address both short-term and long-term pain. Lidocam Topical Gel (LTG) (4% lidocaine and 0.3% meloxicam) was developed to address industry needs for an effective and safe product to address animal welfare concerns regarding castration and tail docking in piglets. (2) Methods: Study 1: Male piglets aged 4–8 days of age were treated with LTG (n = 30) or a control gel (n = 30). Approximately 30 min after application of the gel, the piglets were surgically castrated and tail docked. The efficacy of pain control during the surgical procedures and post-procedure (24 h) pain and inflammation control were evaluated using both behavioral and physiological measurements. Study 2: Meloxicam residue depletion following LTG treatment was followed for 28 days. Study 3: Clinical and pathological safety were evaluated in five groups of eight piglets receiving LTG with: (1) no treatment, (2) nominal topical dose, (3) two times the nominal topical dose, (4) three times the nominal topical dose, and 5) one times the nominal topical dose and 2 mL of LTG by oral gavage daily for 3 days. (3) Results: LTG-treated piglets had a significant reduction in electrocutaneous stimulation response before the procedures and 4 and 24 h post-procedures. Stress vocalization intensity and duration were less in piglets receiving LTG during the surgical procedures. Plasma cortisol and substance P were significantly lower in LTG-treated piglets 3 h after castration and tail docking. The weight and average daily gain were significantly increased in piglets receiving LTG. LTG did not interfere with wound healing or cause irritation at the application sites. There were no abnormal clinical or pathological findings associated with the use of LTG at three times the nominal dose given daily for three days. As meloxicam persisted in the application site tissue, a slaughter withdrawal time of 24 days was determined. (4) Conclusions: When applied to the skin 30 min before castration and tail docking, LTG is effective in surgical pain control and provides post-surgical pain control for up to 24 h. LTG is safe for use in piglets and provides an acceptable withdrawal time for commercial use. LTG is a potentially effective product for commercial use for piglet castration and tail docking. Full article
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12 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Correlation of Blood Hemoglobin Values with Non-Invasive Co-Oximetry Measurement of SpHb in Dogs Undergoing Elective Ovariohysterectomy
by María Fernanda Espinosa-Morales, Agatha Elisa Miranda-Cortés, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Alejandro Casas-Alvarado, Alejandro Jiménez-Yedra, Alicia Pamela Pérez-Sánchez and Ismael Hernández-Ávalos
Animals 2024, 14(6), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060822 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Cardiovascular function monitoring has been suggested as a key parameter to determine patient stability during the anesthetic process. However, the use of pulse co-oximetry has been suggested as a technology to complement the monitoring of this system as a direct way to assess [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular function monitoring has been suggested as a key parameter to determine patient stability during the anesthetic process. However, the use of pulse co-oximetry has been suggested as a technology to complement the monitoring of this system as a direct way to assess hemoglobin (Hb) blood concentration. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate and determine the measurement bias between Hb blood levels with continuously determined blood hemoglobin concentration (SpHb) and arterial oxygen content values (SpOC), both obtained by noninvasive co-oximetry in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy (OVH). A total of 85 clinically healthy bitches of different breeds that were admitted for elective OVH surgery were evaluated. These animals underwent SpHb and SpOC capture after the in vivo setting for the duration of the surgical procedure. Likewise, five minutes before the end of the surgical procedure, a blood sample was obtained directly from the jugular vein to determine the blood concentration of Hb (HbLAB). The Bland–Altman analysis showed 95% limits of agreement from −4.22 to 4.99 g/dL with a BIAS (mean difference) of 0.384 ± 2.35 g/dL (r = 0.401). SpHb recordings were correlated with oxygen saturation (SpO2) (r = 0.995), SpOC (r = 0.992) and with perfusion index (PI) (r = 0.418). Therefore, SpHb presents a moderate positive correlation with direct blood concentration of Hb. This possibly shows that continuous measurement of SpHb by noninvasive co-oximetry is a reliable and advanced alternative for monitoring Hb concentration in dogs under anesthesia. Full article
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10 pages, 212 KiB  
Communication
Tiletamine-Zolazepam, Ketamine, and Xylazine Anesthetic Protocol for High-Quality, High-Volume Spay and Neuter of Free-Roaming Cats in Seoul, Korea
by Donghwi Shin, Yoonju Cho and Inhyung Lee
Animals 2024, 14(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14040656 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 901
Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate the anesthetic protocol used in the high-quality, high-volume spay and neuter (HQHVSN) of free-roaming cats in Seoul, Korea from 2017 to 2022. The evaluation was performed on a total of 1261 free-roaming cats, with an average weight [...] Read more.
This study was performed to evaluate the anesthetic protocol used in the high-quality, high-volume spay and neuter (HQHVSN) of free-roaming cats in Seoul, Korea from 2017 to 2022. The evaluation was performed on a total of 1261 free-roaming cats, with an average weight of 3.48 ± 1.04 kg. The anesthetic combination tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine (ZKX) was injected intramuscularly. The actual drug doses administered were tiletamine-zolazepam 5.52 ± 1.70 mg/kg, ketamine 8.94 ± 3.60 mg/kg, and xylazine 1.11 ± 0.34 mg/kg. Additional doses were required in 275 cats out of a total of 1261 (21.8%). Following anesthesia and surgery, 1257 cats (99.7%) were returned to their original locations. Four cats (0.3%) died postoperatively. The mean duration of anesthesia (from ZKX combination to yohimbine administration) was 26 ± 22 min for males and 55 ± 36 min for females, while the time from yohimbine administration to the recovery was 31 ± 22 min for males and 20 ± 17 min for females. The use of ZKX for HQHVSN of free-roaming cats is inexpensive, provides predictable results, can be administered quickly and easily in a small volume, and is associated with a low mortality rate during the first 72 h post-surgery. Full article
11 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Preemptive Analgesia with Amantadine for Controlling Postoperative Pain in Cats Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy
by Paula Elisa Brandão Guedes, Taísa Miranda Pinto, Janaína Maria Xavier Corrêa, Raquel Vieira Niella, Carolina Moreira dos Anjos, Jéssica Natália Silva de Oliveira, Claire Souza da Costa Marques, Sophia Saraiva de Souza, Elisângela Barboza da Silva and Mário Sérgio Lima de Lavor
Animals 2024, 14(4), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14040643 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 537
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the preemptive administration of amantadine on postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and its influence on the physiological parameters. Twenty healthy domestic cats scheduled to undergo ovariohysterectomy at the Santa Cruz State University, Ilhéus, were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the preemptive administration of amantadine on postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and its influence on the physiological parameters. Twenty healthy domestic cats scheduled to undergo ovariohysterectomy at the Santa Cruz State University, Ilhéus, were divided into two groups: the control group (Group C; n = 10) and the amantadine group (Group A; n = 10). The cats in Group C received placebo capsules 30 min prior to the standard anesthetic protocol, whereas those in Group A received 5 mg/kg of amantadine orally 30 min prior to the standard anesthetic protocol. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale and the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional scale for the evaluation of postoperative pain in cats. The administration of amantadine had no effect on the physiological parameters evaluated. The pain scores in Group A were lower than those in Group C, indicating that the frequency of rescue analgesic administration cats in Group A was lower. That way, preemptive oral administration of amantadine at a dose of 5 mg/kg was effective at controlling postoperative pain in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Moreover, no adverse effects or alterations in the physiological patterns were observed in the treated animals. Full article
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11 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Effects of Intratesticular Lidocaine in Pet Rabbits Undergoing Orchiectomy
by Matteo Serpieri, Giuseppe Bonaffini, Chiara Ottino, Giuseppe Quaranta and Mitzy Mauthe von Degerfeld
Animals 2024, 14(4), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14040551 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
The use of local anesthetics for castration is both simple and cost-effective, and it may contribute to reducing the anesthetic requirements. Despite its common use in clinical practice, the literature regarding the effects of intratesticular lidocaine in rabbits is limited. In this study, [...] Read more.
The use of local anesthetics for castration is both simple and cost-effective, and it may contribute to reducing the anesthetic requirements. Despite its common use in clinical practice, the literature regarding the effects of intratesticular lidocaine in rabbits is limited. In this study, nine rabbits per group were assigned to intratesticularly receive either 2% lidocaine (0.05 mL/kg into each testicle) or an equivalent volume of saline prior to elective orchiectomy. Anesthesia was induced by intranasal administration of ketamine, medetomidine, and butorphanol. During intraoperative assessment, no significant differences in vital parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral saturation of oxygen) were observed between the groups. However, rabbits receiving intratesticular saline displayed a higher incidence of responses to surgical stimuli. Postoperative pain was evaluated using the composite Centro Animali Non Convenzionali Rabbit Scale (CANCRS), revealing a significantly lower score at the initial post-surgery assessment in rabbits treated with intratesticular lidocaine. All subjects exhibited rapid resumption of food intake and fecal output. While all rabbits demonstrated satisfactory perioperative performances, the use of intratesticular lidocaine was associated with a diminished response to surgical stimuli. Consequently, this practice has the potential to reduce the requirement for additional anesthetics or analgesics, promoting faster recovery. Full article
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13 pages, 1515 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Injectable Lidocaine and a Lidocaine-Impregnated Latex Band for Castration and Tail Docking in Lambs
by Joseph A. Ross, Steven M. Roche, Kendall Beaugrand, Crystal Schatz, Ann Hammad, Brenda J. Ralston, Andrea M. Hanson, Nicholas Allan and Merle Olson
Animals 2024, 14(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020255 - 13 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the current standard-of-care for pain mitigation in lambs during castration and tail docking (injectable lidocaine) and assess the ability of Lidocaine-Loaded Bands (LLBs) to deliver therapeutic concentrations into the contacted [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the current standard-of-care for pain mitigation in lambs during castration and tail docking (injectable lidocaine) and assess the ability of Lidocaine-Loaded Bands (LLBs) to deliver therapeutic concentrations into the contacted tissues over time. The study was comprised of four different trials: (1) investigation of in vitro release of lidocaine from LLBs; (2) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of injectable lidocaine in scrotal and tail tissue; (3) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of in vivo delivery of lidocaine with LLBs placed on the tail and scrotum of lambs; and (4) a “proof-of-concept” study comparing the sensation of control- versus LLB-banded tail tissue over time. The use of injectable lidocaine provides effective short-term anesthesia for 120 to 180 min following the injection; however, additional strategies are needed to manage long-term pain. The use of an LLB could provide an alternative where tissue lidocaine concentrations meet or exceed the EC50 for at least 21–28 days and, based on electrostimulation data, provides local anesthesia for at least 3 days when compared to a control band. Further studies are needed to compare the use of an injectable local anesthetic to the LLBs. Full article
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18 pages, 4681 KiB  
Article
Cardiorespiratory Effects and Desflurane Requirement in Dogs Undergoing Ovariectomy after Administration Maropitant or Methadone
by Francesca Cubeddu, Gerolamo Masala, Giovanni Sotgiu, Alessandra Mollica, Sylvia Versace and Giovanni Mario Careddu
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142388 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
General anesthesia for ovariectomy in dogs is based on a balanced anesthesia protocol such as using analgesics along with an inhalant agent. While opioids such as fentanyl and methadone are commonly used for their analgesic potency, other drugs can also have analgesic effects. [...] Read more.
General anesthesia for ovariectomy in dogs is based on a balanced anesthesia protocol such as using analgesics along with an inhalant agent. While opioids such as fentanyl and methadone are commonly used for their analgesic potency, other drugs can also have analgesic effects. Maropitant, an antiemetic for dogs and cats, has also been shown to exert analgesic effects, especially on visceral pain. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory effects and analgesic properties of maropitant and methadone combined with desflurane in dogs undergoing ovariectomy. Two groups of 20 healthy mixed-breeds bitches undergoing elective ovariectomy received intravenous either maropitant at antiemetic dose of 1 mg kg−1 or methadone at the dose of 0.3 mg kg−1. Cardiorespiratory variables were collected before premedication, 10 min after sedation and during surgery. Recovery quality and postoperative pain were evaluated 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min postoperatively. Results showed that maropitant produced analgesia and reduced the requirement of desflurane in amounts similar to those determined by methadone (5.39 ± 0.20% and 4.91 ± 0.26%, respectively) without significant difference, while maintaining heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure even at a more satisfactory level. Therefore, maropitant may be recommended as an analgesic drug for abdominal surgery not only in healthy dogs but also in those with reduced cardiorespiratory compensatory capacities or at risk of hypotension, especially when combined with a sedative such as dexmedetomidine. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Cardiorespiratory effects and desflurane requirement in dogs undergoing ovariectomy premedicated with dexmedetomidine and induced with propofol after administration of maropitant or methadone
Author: Cubeddu
Highlights: Cardiovascular variables significantly increased in both groups at ovarian ligaments traction if compared with shortly before surgery. Heart rate SAP, DAP and MAP were sig-nificantly higher in Maropi group compared with Metha group from T1 to T11. End-tidal percentage of desflurane at each detection time during surgery was higher in Maropi group than in Metha group without statistical significance.

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