Recent Advances in Equine Anesthesia and Analgesia

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Equids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 7723

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Animal Medicine and Surgery Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Córdoba, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: anesthesia; analgesia; small animal; large animal

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Animal Medicine and Surgery Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Córdoba, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: anesthesia; analgesia; small animal; large animal

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Animal Medicine and Surgery Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Córdoba, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: analgesia; soft tissue surgery; small animal; large animal; scientific methodology; statistical analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in equine anesthesia and analgesia are under continuous development. Since the last preliminary results of the CEPEF-4 multicenter study, new improvements are still necessary to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in equine anesthesia. After the success of the Special Issue “Anesthesia and Analgesia in Equids”, a new Special Issue has been proposed to focus on new advances in anesthesia and analgesia than contribute to the safety of Equids.

In this Special Issue, we invite original clinical or experimental research papers and reviews of studies addressing advances in Equine anesthesia and analgesia, including techniques, drugs, loco-regional anesthesia, monitoring, pain evaluation, and any original findings that contribute towards making an advancement in this field.

Dr. María Mar Granados
Dr. Rocío Navarrete-Calvo
Dr. Juán Morgaz Rodríguez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • equine
  • anesthesia
  • analgesia
  • sedation
  • loco-regional block
  • monitoring

Published Papers (4 papers)

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14 pages, 723 KiB  
Article
Development and Preliminary Validation of an Equine Brief Pain Inventory for Owner Assessment of Chronic Pain Due to Osteoarthritis in Horses
by Diane L. Howard, Bryony Lancaster and Janny de Grauw
Animals 2024, 14(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020181 - 5 Jan 2024
Viewed by 3202
Abstract
An owner-completed questionnaire was designed to monitor the level of chronic pain and impact on quality of life in horses with osteoarthritis (OA). A standardized approach to develop and validate subjective-state scales for clinical use was followed. Scale items were generated through literature [...] Read more.
An owner-completed questionnaire was designed to monitor the level of chronic pain and impact on quality of life in horses with osteoarthritis (OA). A standardized approach to develop and validate subjective-state scales for clinical use was followed. Scale items were generated through literature review, focus group meetings, and expert panel evaluation. The draft tool was tested for reading level and language ambiguity and piloted in 25 owners/caregivers of horses with osteoarthritis, with factor analysis performed on responses. The resulting revised questionnaire is currently undergoing validation in a larger sample population of 60 OA and 20 sound control horses. In the pilot group, 21 people (84%) found the questionnaire easy to complete and 22 people (88%) found it useful. It could be completed within 5 min by all participants. Readability scores (Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch–Kincaid grade level, SMOG index) indicated an English language reading level comparable to that of 6th to 7th grade in the U.S. system (age 11–12 years). Cronbach’s alpha of all items in the tool was 0.957, indicating excellent inter-item correlation. Interim analysis for 23 OA horses from the sample population showed good test–retest reliability and higher scores compared to 5 control horses. Full validation must be completed for the instrument to be used in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Equine Anesthesia and Analgesia)
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10 pages, 497 KiB  
Article
Assessment of an Ultrasound-Guided Rectus Sheath Block in Foals: A Cadaveric Study
by Álvaro Jesús Gutiérrez Bautista, Franz Josef Söbbeler, Rüdiger Koch, Jaime Viscasillas and Sabine Kästner
Animals 2023, 13(23), 3600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13233600 - 21 Nov 2023
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Abstract
In neonatal equines, pathologies involving umbilical structures are an important cause of morbidity, and surgical removal of urachal remnants is a common procedure in clinical practice. Surgery involving the ventral abdominal wall can cause substantial pain, leading to complications and prolonged recovery. The [...] Read more.
In neonatal equines, pathologies involving umbilical structures are an important cause of morbidity, and surgical removal of urachal remnants is a common procedure in clinical practice. Surgery involving the ventral abdominal wall can cause substantial pain, leading to complications and prolonged recovery. The objectives of this study were to describe a two-point bilateral ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block at the level of the umbilicus and to evaluate the extent of dye distribution in foal cadavers. Ten foal cadavers were included in the study, in which a bilateral two-point ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block was performed—one injection 5 cm cranially and a second one 5 cm caudally to the umbilicus. The injectate consisted of a mixture of iodinated contrast medium and blue dye at a volume of 0.25 mL kg−1 per injection point (total 1 mL kg−1). After the injection, computer tomography and subsequent dissection of the ventral abdominal wall were performed. The extension of the contrast medium, the number of stained nerves, and contamination of the abdominal cavity were evaluated. The cranio-caudal extension of the contrast ranged from 0.8 to 1.4 cm per milliliter of injectate. The most commonly stained ventral branches of spinal nerves were thoracic (Th) nerves 16, 17, and 18 (95%, 85%, and 80% of the nerves, respectively). Abdominal contamination was found in four animals. The results suggest that the block could provide periumbilical analgesia. Further studies with different volumes of injectate and living animals are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Equine Anesthesia and Analgesia)
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14 pages, 6193 KiB  
Article
Xylazine Infusion during Equine Colic Anesthesia with Isoflurane and Lidocaine: A Retrospective Study
by Patricia Ruíz-López, Charlotte Cuypers and Stijn Schauvliege
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182902 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
This retrospective study investigated the effect of a xylazine infusion on heart rate; mean arterial pressure; blood gases; anesthetic and dobutamine requirements; recovery quality and duration; percentage of death/survival; and days to die/discharge in horses after colic surgery under partial intravenous anesthesia with [...] Read more.
This retrospective study investigated the effect of a xylazine infusion on heart rate; mean arterial pressure; blood gases; anesthetic and dobutamine requirements; recovery quality and duration; percentage of death/survival; and days to die/discharge in horses after colic surgery under partial intravenous anesthesia with isoflurane and lidocaine infusion. Anesthetic records of equine colic surgery were reviewed from similar periods in 2020–2021 and 2021–2022. In both groups, after sedation with xylazine 0.7 mg/kg intravenously (IV) and induction with ketamine 2.2 mg/kg and midazolam 0.06 mg/kg IV, anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and lidocaine (bolus 1.5 mg/kg IV, infusion 2 mg/kg/h). Group L (2020–2021, n = 45) received xylazine 0.2 mg/kg IV before recovery, group XL (2021–2022, n = 44) received xylazine 0.5 mg/kg/h IV intraoperatively. In group XL, minimal (p = 0.04) and average (p = 0.04) heart rate, intraoperative hematocrit (p = 0.001), minimal (p = 0.002) and maximal (p = 0.04) dobutamine administration rate, animals requiring ketamine top-ups (p = 0.04), and the number of days to discharge (p = 0.02), were significantly lower compared to group L. During recovery in group XL, the time to sternal recumbency (p = 0.03) and time to first attempt (p = 0.04) were significantly longer. This retrospective study suggests that a xylazine infusion may have beneficial effects on horses undergoing colic surgery. Further prospective studies are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Equine Anesthesia and Analgesia)
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15 pages, 737 KiB  
Systematic Review
Analgesic Efficacy of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Therapy in Horses with Abdominal Pain: A Systematic Review
by Gerardo Citarella, Vanessa Heitzmann, Elisabeth Ranninger and Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223447 - 8 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
This systematic review aimed to identify the evidence concerning the analgesic efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to treat abdominal pain in horses, and to establish whether one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could provide better analgesia compared to others. This systematic review was conducted following [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to identify the evidence concerning the analgesic efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to treat abdominal pain in horses, and to establish whether one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could provide better analgesia compared to others. This systematic review was conducted following the “Systematic Review Protocol for Animal Intervention Studies”. Research published between 1985 and the end of May 2023 was searched, using three databases, namely, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus, using the words equine OR horse AND colic OR abdominal pain AND non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug AND meloxicam OR flunixin meglumine OR phenylbutazone OR firocoxib OR ketoprofen. Risk of bias was assessed with the SYRCLE risk of bias tool, and level of evidence scored according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. From those only one study judged pain with a validated pain score, and a high risk of bias was identified due to the presence of selection, performance, and “other” types of bias. Therefore, caution is required in the interpretation of results from individual studies. To date, the evidence on analgesic efficacy to determine whether one drug is more potent than another regarding the treatment of abdominal pain in horses is sparse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Equine Anesthesia and Analgesia)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: ASSESSMENT OF AN ULTRASOUND-GUIDED RECTUS SHEATH BLOCK: AN ANATOMIC STUDY IN FOAL CADAVERS
Author: Gutierrez-Bautista
Highlights: -nerve staining acchieved between Th 13 and L1 -very good nerve coverage in the area of the umbilicus (Th 16 to Th 18) -technique seems suitable for umbilical surgery in foals

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