Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Small Ruminants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2022) | Viewed by 37856

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: pathology; diseases; sheep health management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Patología Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón-IA2, Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA, C/Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: welfare and pathology of small ruminants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A wide variety of disorders can lead to anaemia in sheep, and the achievement of an accurate diagnosis may become complex. In-depth knowledge of these disorders is essential to determine the aetiology of the anaemia, establish a prognosis and implement effective therapeutic and preventive measures.

Nutritional deficiencies of trace minerals (Fe, Cu, Se, Co) and vitamin B12 are important causes of anaemia in sheep, and parasitic diseases, mainly those caused by haemoparasites and transmitted by ticks (babesiosis, anaplasmosis and theileriosis), lead to this problem too. In addition, poisoning by toxic plants and chronic copper poisoning are also causes of anaemia. Other diseases, such as enterotoxaemia by Clostridium perfringes type D or leptospirosis, should be considered when anaemia is present. Of course, any other disorder that causes bleeding should not be ignored.

We encourage you to share new information about any disorder that can lead to anaemia in sheep.

Dr. Delia Lacasta
Dr. Aurora Ortín
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • sheep
  • anaemia
  • haemolysis
  • haemorrhage
  • erythroid hypoplasia

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of the Use of Doxycycline and Oxytetracycline to Treat Anaplasmosis in Fattening Lambs
by Delia Lacasta, Héctor Ruiz, Aurora Ortín, Sergio Villanueva-Saz, Agustín Estrada-Peña, José María González, Juan José Ramos, Luis Miguel Ferrer, Alfredo Ángel Benito, Raquel Labanda, Carlos Malo, María Teresa Verde, Antonio Fernández and Marta Ruiz de Arcaute
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172279 - 2 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Lamb icteric carcasses condemnation due to Anaplasma ovis is causing relevant economic losses. A comparative study was developed on the effects of different antibiotics to treat ovine anaplasmosis in fattening lambs. A total of 100 A. ovis naturally infected lambs were selected and [...] Read more.
Lamb icteric carcasses condemnation due to Anaplasma ovis is causing relevant economic losses. A comparative study was developed on the effects of different antibiotics to treat ovine anaplasmosis in fattening lambs. A total of 100 A. ovis naturally infected lambs were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 25 lambs: Group ID, treated with injectable doxycycline; Group OD, oral doxycycline; Group O, injectable oxytetracycline; and Group C, untreated animals for the control group. Clinical, haematological, and molecular analyses were performed before the treatment and 12 and 45 days after the beginning of the treatments, and carcass condemnation was followed after slaughter. The A. ovis bacterial load was high before the treatments in the four groups and decreased significantly 45 days after treatment in the ID and O Groups (p < 0.001). The parameters that were related to haemolysis showed similar results. At the abattoir, 15 out of the 47 examined carcasses were condemned; 7 of C Group, 6 of OD Group, 2 of O Group, and 0 of ID Group. It can be concluded that injectable doxycycline and oxytetracycline significantly reduce A. ovis bacterial load in blood and carcass condemnation at the abattoir. Further studies are needed in order to confirm these encouraging findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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11 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Anaemia in Lambs and Kids Reared Indoors on Maternal Milk and the Impact of Iron Supplementation on Haemoglobin Levels and Growth Rates
by James Patrick Crilly and Peter Plate
Animals 2022, 12(14), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141863 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
This study aimed to assess iron deficiency anaemia in new-born lambs and goat kids and was carried out in two parts: (1) Twenty blood samples were taken from one-month-old lambs and kids under different systems and were tested for haemoglobin. Three groups of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess iron deficiency anaemia in new-born lambs and goat kids and was carried out in two parts: (1) Twenty blood samples were taken from one-month-old lambs and kids under different systems and were tested for haemoglobin. Three groups of lambs were compared: indoor reared on maternal milk, indoor reared on milk replacer, and outdoor reared on maternal milk. Indoor-reared kids were compared: those fed on maternal milk and fed on milk replacer. Indoor-reared kids and lambs on maternal milk showed significantly lower haemoglobin levels than those on milk replacer or reared outdoors. (2) On farms with indoor-reared lambs or goat kids on maternal milk, an intervention trial was carried out: animals were randomly assigned at 1–8 days of age to either receive 300 mg (lambs) or 150 mg iron (goat kids) as intramuscular iron dextran, and growth rates were compared after one and two months. Haemoglobin levels at one month were also compared in randomly selected animals from both groups. Treated lambs and kids showed higher haemoglobin levels at one month of age and a numerically increased growth rate that was statistically significant for twin lambs. Iron dextran improves haemoglobin levels in these animals and may lead to higher growth rates, especially in twin lambs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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Review

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15 pages, 2084 KiB  
Review
Anaemia in Sheep Caused by Babesia and Theileria Haemoparasites
by Sergio Villanueva-Saz, Marta Borobia, Antonio Fernández, Calasanz Jiménez, Andrés Yzuel, María Teresa Verde, María Ángeles Ramo, Luis Figueras and Héctor Ruíz
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233341 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4857
Abstract
Piroplasmoses in sheep are caused by vector-borne apicomplexan protozoa, Babesia and Theileria. Different species are responsible for the disease; some species are more pathogenic than others and have a worldwide distribution. In this sense, these causative agents can cause anaemia in flocks. [...] Read more.
Piroplasmoses in sheep are caused by vector-borne apicomplexan protozoa, Babesia and Theileria. Different species are responsible for the disease; some species are more pathogenic than others and have a worldwide distribution. In this sense, these causative agents can cause anaemia in flocks. In general, these vector-borne diseases infect small ruminants and cause host-mediated pathology. In the case of Babesia species, a combination of different mechanisms is involved: red blood cell lysis due to intracellular parasite multiplication, activation of biogenic amines and the coagulation system with the possibility of disseminated intravascular coagulation. By contrast, less information is available on the different immunopathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of anaemia in sheep with theileriosis. However, the mechanisms of pathogenic action in theileriosis are similar to those studied in babesiosis. Diagnosis is based on compatible clinical signs, laboratory findings, specific diagnostic tests and the presence of the tick vector. Some of these tests detect the causative agent itself, such as direct identification by light microscopy and molecular analysis. In contrast, other tests detect the sheep’s immune response to the organism by serology. Both diseases pose a significant diagnostic challenge for veterinary practitioners around the world. This review presents the most frequent clinical signs, pathogenesis and clinicopathological findings, diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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16 pages, 1089 KiB  
Review
Copper Poisoning, a Deadly Hazard for Sheep
by Marta Borobia, Sergio Villanueva-Saz, Marta Ruiz de Arcaute, Antonio Fernández, María Teresa Verde, José María González, Teresa Navarro, Alfredo A. Benito, José Luis Arnal, Marcelo De las Heras and Aurora Ortín
Animals 2022, 12(18), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182388 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5091
Abstract
Copper (Cu) is an essential microelement for animals. However, sheep are particularly susceptible to Cu intoxication, a deadly disease reported worldwide. The risk of developing this poisoning is higher in vulnerable breeds and in intensively managed lambs or milk sheep. Two types of [...] Read more.
Copper (Cu) is an essential microelement for animals. However, sheep are particularly susceptible to Cu intoxication, a deadly disease reported worldwide. The risk of developing this poisoning is higher in vulnerable breeds and in intensively managed lambs or milk sheep. Two types of Cu intoxication can occur depending on the chronic or acute exposure to Cu. In chronic Cu poisoning (CCP), the most common form, Cu is accumulated in the liver during a subclinical period. A low intake of Cu antagonists (molybdenum, sulphur, iron, or zinc) favours Cu accumulation. The sudden release of Cu into the blood causes acute haemolysis with anaemia, haemoglobinuria, jaundice and death within 1–2 days. Acute Cu poisoning is related to the accidental administration or ingestion of toxic amounts of Cu. Acute oral exposure to Cu causes severe gastroenteritis, shock and death. Collapse and death occur shortly after parenteral administration. The diagnosis is based on history, clinical, gross pathological, histological and toxicological findings. Treatment of sheep with severe clinical signs often has poor success but is very effective during the Cu accumulation phase. Different therapies, based on either chelating agents or Cu antagonists, have been used to treat and prevent CCP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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15 pages, 1528 KiB  
Review
Anaemia in Ruminants Caused by Plant Consumption
by Héctor Ruiz, Delia Lacasta, Juan José Ramos, Hélder Quintas, Marta Ruiz de Arcaute, María Ángeles Ramo, Sergio Villanueva-Saz and Luis Miguel Ferrer
Animals 2022, 12(18), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182373 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
Plant toxicology has affected animals throughout evolution. Plants have adapted themselves to the environment. This adaptation has led to the development of defensive strategies to avoid being consumed. Plants have several chemical compounds, which can cause deleterious effects on people or animals that [...] Read more.
Plant toxicology has affected animals throughout evolution. Plants have adapted themselves to the environment. This adaptation has led to the development of defensive strategies to avoid being consumed. Plants have several chemical compounds, which can cause deleterious effects on people or animals that consume them, causing a wide variety of clinical signs. Plants from various latitudes, both cultivated for human and animal feeding or decorative purpose and even wild growth plants are able to generate anaemia in ruminants. Coumarins or ptaquiloside predispose bleeding and haemorrhages, causing a haemorrhagic disease in affected animals. In this group, some important fodder plants, such sweet clover (Genus Melilotus spp.), or other weeds distributed worldwide, such as bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) of giant fennel (Ferula communis), are included. On the other hand, sulfur-containing chemicals (e.g., n-propyl disulfate and S-propyl cysteine sulfoxides (SMCOs)) may cause severe direct damage to the erythrocyte and their membrane, leading to their destruction and causing haemolytic anaemia in the animal. This review presents the most frequent intoxication by plants causing anaemia in ruminants. Toxic compounds, clinical signs, diagnosis and possible treatments are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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9 pages, 3932 KiB  
Review
Yellow Lamb Disease (Clostridium perfringens Type A Enterotoxemia of Sheep): A Review
by Francisco A. Uzal, Federico Giannitti and Javier Asin
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121590 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3876
Abstract
Yellow lamb disease is an infrequent disease in sheep for which there is scant literature, and that has been reported in the US, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Europe, although anecdotal evidence indicates that it may have also been diagnosed in South [...] Read more.
Yellow lamb disease is an infrequent disease in sheep for which there is scant literature, and that has been reported in the US, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Europe, although anecdotal evidence indicates that it may have also been diagnosed in South America. The disease is produced by some strains of Clostridium perfringens type A that produce unusually high levels of alpha- toxin. Because C. perfringens type A is ubiquitous and is found in the intestine of most clinically healthy sheep, diagnosis of yellow lamb disease is challenging and requires quantitating the amount of this microorganism present in feces and/or intestinal content. Clinically, yellow lamb disease is characterized by depression, anemia, icterus and hemoglobinuria. Occasionally, sudden death may occur. Gross findings include generalized icterus, red urine in the bladder, enlarged, pale, and friable spleen, enlarged liver with an acinar pattern, and dark, swollen kidneys. Microscopically, yellow lamb disease is characterized by centrilobular necrosis of the liver, hemoglobinuria-associated acute tubular injury, splenic congestion, pulmonary congestion and edema. Although there are no vaccines specifically designed to prevent yellow lamb disease, several vaccines against the different types of C. perfringens may afford at least some level of protection against yellow lamb disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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10 pages, 1919 KiB  
Review
Fasciolosis—An Increasing Challenge in the Sheep Industry
by Snorre Stuen and Cecilie Ersdal
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121491 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5437
Abstract
The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica may cause severe infection in several mammalian species, including sheep and humans. Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease occurring worldwide in temperate climates and involves intermediate lymnaeid snails as vectors, in Europe the pond snail Galba truncatula in particular. [...] Read more.
The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica may cause severe infection in several mammalian species, including sheep and humans. Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease occurring worldwide in temperate climates and involves intermediate lymnaeid snails as vectors, in Europe the pond snail Galba truncatula in particular. In the sheep industry, the disease is a serious welfare and health problem. Fasciolosis is usually classified as acute, subacute or chronic according to the number and stage of flukes present in the liver, but with a considerable overlap. Acute disease, associated with a large number of migrating larvae, often results in sudden death due to acute and massive hemorrhage, while chronic fasciolosis is characterized by anemia, hypoalbuminaemia and weight loss. The management of fasciolosis is an increasing challenge in the sheep industry. Early diagnostic tests are limited. Protective immunity against liver flukes in sheep is low or lacking, and vaccines are not yet available. Treatment and control possibilities are challenging, and resistance to flukicide drugs is increasing. In addition, climate change with warmer and more humid weather will have a substantial effect on the establishment of both flukes and snails and will most likely increase the future distribution of F. hepatica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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12 pages, 737 KiB  
Review
Anaemia in Lambs Caused by Mycoplasma ovis: Global and Australian Perspectives
by Peter A. Windsor
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111372 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
Mycoplasma ovis (formerly Eperythrozoon ovis) is a haemotropic parasitic bacterium found within erythrocytes and distributed widely in global sheep and goat production regions. M. ovis is transmitted by biting flies and by contaminated instruments, causing morbidity and mortalities from anaemia, usually within [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma ovis (formerly Eperythrozoon ovis) is a haemotropic parasitic bacterium found within erythrocytes and distributed widely in global sheep and goat production regions. M. ovis is transmitted by biting flies and by contaminated instruments, causing morbidity and mortalities from anaemia, usually within 6 weeks following blood-exposure procedures, particularly vaccination, castration, ear tagging, mulesing, and occasionally crutching and shearing. Affected animals develop haemolytic anaemia and may have jaundice, causing abattoir condemnations. The typical history, clinical and pathological findings, display of M. ovis in blood smears and/or by PCR is diagnostic, although immune responses deplete M. ovis from smears; hence, in-contact healthy animals should be examined. Differential diagnoses include haemonchosis, fasciolosis, malnutrition (copper or vitamin B12 deficiency), and plant toxicities. M. ovis parasitaemia may persist, with recrudescence following stressful events, although most older sheep remain immune. Human infections have been reported. Inadequate socioeconomic data present difficulties in assessing the impact of M. ovis on production and as antimicrobial therapy is ineffective, its control requires management practices that minimize the impact of invasive procedures in periods when risks of M. ovis transmission are more likely. Although considered an emerging pathogen, recent improvements in welfare attitudes and husbandry practices on Australian sheep farms may potentially limit the transmission of M. ovis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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11 pages, 1526 KiB  
Review
A Review: Haemonchus contortus Infection in Pasture-Based Sheep Production Systems, with a Focus on the Pathogenesis of Anaemia and Changes in Haematological Parameters
by Kate J. Flay, Fraser I. Hill and Daniela Hernandez Muguiro
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101238 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4359
Abstract
Haemonchosis is an important cause of anaemia in sheep worldwide, particularly those that are kept in pasture-based systems in warm, high rainfall environments. Potential outcomes vary based on the severity of infection and the sheep’s immune response, however, in some sheep infection can [...] Read more.
Haemonchosis is an important cause of anaemia in sheep worldwide, particularly those that are kept in pasture-based systems in warm, high rainfall environments. Potential outcomes vary based on the severity of infection and the sheep’s immune response, however, in some sheep infection can lead to death. The consequences of Haemonchus contortus infection mean that it has been well-studied in a range of different farming systems. However, to our knowledge, there has not been a recent review focused on the pathophysiology of anaemia caused by haemonchosis. Thus, this review provides an in-depth discussion of the literature related to the pathophysiology of haemonchosis and associated clinical signs for hyperacute, acute, and chronic haemonchosis. Additionally, haematological and biochemical findings are presented, and various diagnostic methods are assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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