Advances in Processing for Food Allergies

A special issue of Allergies (ISSN 2313-5786). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Allergy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 15558

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, Spain
Interests: plant food allergens (legumes and nuts); reduction of the allergenic potential through processing; proteomic and genomic analysis; detection of nuts allergens by RT-PCR and biosensors in processed foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Genetics, Physiolgy and Microbiology Department, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: detection of nut allergens by RT-PCR and biosensors in processed foods; genetic and epigenetic changes induce by in vitro plant tissue culture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Currently, food allergies are an important health concern worldwide that affect to 1–3% of the general population and to 8% in children. Food processing can alter the structure, function, and properties of proteins, and thereby also modify the IgE reactivity of allergens, so it has been proposed as a method to obtain food with altered allergenicity. There are no general rules about the effect of processing on the allergenicity, and hence, it has the ability to generate new allergenic epitopes (neoallergens) as well as to abolish the existing reactive epitopes. These effects depend on the type and duration of the treatment, as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the protein and of the physicochemical conditions of its microenvironment. Studies are directed to characterize the molecular changes induced by processing, such as thermal, pressure, or enzymatic treatments. Some daily processing methods have been shown to be effective in decreasing the content of specific allergens in certain foods, which may open a future path for hypoallergenic food development or pave the way for the use of specifically processed foods for tolerance induction. The present Issue gives an updated overview of the influence of food processing techniques on allergenicity and their  applications.

Dr. Carmen Cuadrado
Prof. Dr. Rosario Linacero
Guest editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Allergies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Allergens
  • Food hypersensitivity
  • Tree nuts
  • Thermal processing
  • Pressure processing
  • Enzymatic digestion

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 6366 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Sourdough Technology on the Availability of Celiac Peptides from Wheat α- and γ-Gliadins: In Silico Approach
by Annick Barre, Hervé Benoist and Pierre Rougé
Allergies 2023, 3(1), 39-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/allergies3010004 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Celiac peptide-generating α- and γ-gliadins consist of a disordered N-terminal domain extended by an α-helical-folded C-terminal domain. Celiac peptides, primarily located along the disordered part of α- and γ-gliadin molecules, are nicely exposed and directly accessible to proteolytic enzymes occurring in [...] Read more.
Celiac peptide-generating α- and γ-gliadins consist of a disordered N-terminal domain extended by an α-helical-folded C-terminal domain. Celiac peptides, primarily located along the disordered part of α- and γ-gliadin molecules, are nicely exposed and directly accessible to proteolytic enzymes occurring in the gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (trypsin, chymotrypsin) fluids. More than half of the potential celiac peptides identified so far in gliadins exhibit cleavage sites for pepsin. However, celiac peptides proteolytically truncated by one or two amino acid residues could apparently retain some activity toward HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 receptors in docking experiments. Together with the uncleaved peptides, these still active partially degraded CD peptides account for the incapacity of the digestion process to inactivate CD peptides from gluten proteins. In contrast, sourdough fermentation processes involve other proteolytic enzymes susceptible to the deep degradation of celiac peptides. In particular, sourdough supplemented by fungal prolyl endoproteases enhances the degrading capacities of the sourdough fermentation process toward celiac peptides. Nevertheless, since tiny amounts of celiac peptides sufficient to trigger deleterious effects on CD people can persist in sourdough-treated bread and food products, it is advisable to avoid consumption of sourdough-treated food products for people suffering from celiac disease. As an alternative, applying the supplemented sourdough process to genetically modified low gluten or celiac-safe wheat lines should result in food products that are safer for susceptible and CD people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Processing for Food Allergies)
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13 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
Food Sensitization Impact on Asthma Attacks in Children According to Age Group
by Snezhina Lazova, Diana Hristova, Stamatios Priftis and Tsvetelina Velikova
Allergies 2022, 2(2), 44-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/allergies2020005 - 27 Apr 2022
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Abstract
Introduction: The progression of allergy disorders is termed “atopic march.” Having one allergic disorder increases the likelihood of acquiring others. Asthma and food allergies often coexist. There are no thresholds for specific IgE (sIgE) associated with the presence of clinical symptoms. Each allergen [...] Read more.
Introduction: The progression of allergy disorders is termed “atopic march.” Having one allergic disorder increases the likelihood of acquiring others. Asthma and food allergies often coexist. There are no thresholds for specific IgE (sIgE) associated with the presence of clinical symptoms. Each allergen shows a particular trend with age. Objective: Our study and analysis aim to identify food sensitization in children with asthma and evaluate its impact on asthma attacks and clinical control. Material and methods: As a part of a bigger study, 56 children (mean age 11.07 years (5.3–17.5), 38 boys, and 18 girls) with bronchial asthma were tested for total IgE and sIgE against food and inhalator allergens. All children performed baseline and post-BD spirometry and were assessed for asthma control. Results: In the studied population of children, sIgE against several food allergens was positive in the same patient. A significant correlation was found between the positive sIgE for milk and soy (p < 0.0001), for milk and egg yolk (p = 0.01), compared to milk and peanuts (p = 0.004), compared to egg yolk and fish (p < 0.0001), compared to egg yolk and casein (p < 0.001), and soy (p < 0.0001). The children who are positive for sIgE antibodies in cats, dogs, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, wormwood from aeroallergens and soy from food allergens have a higher risk of hospitalization for exacerbation of bronchial asthma. (p < 0.05). In the studied population, sensitization to food allergens among asthmatics does not contribute to the number of asthma attacks. Conclusions: Food sensitivity is associated with eczema, while mite sensitization is strongly associated with rhinitis and asthma. Food sensitization is not a risk factor for asthma exacerbation in children older than five years old. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Processing for Food Allergies)
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Review

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13 pages, 844 KiB  
Review
Nut Allergenicity: Effect of Food Processing
by Carmen Cuadrado, África Sanchiz and Rosario Linacero
Allergies 2021, 1(3), 150-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/allergies1030014 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 8235
Abstract
Nuts are considered healthy foods due to their high content of nutritional compounds with functional properties. However, the list of the most allergenic foods includes tree nuts, and their presence must be indicated on food labels. Most nut allergens are seed storage proteins, [...] Read more.
Nuts are considered healthy foods due to their high content of nutritional compounds with functional properties. However, the list of the most allergenic foods includes tree nuts, and their presence must be indicated on food labels. Most nut allergens are seed storage proteins, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, profilins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Nut allergenic proteins are characterized by their resistance to denaturation and proteolysis. Food processing has been proposed as the method of choice to alter the allergenicity of foods to ensure their safety and improve their organoleptic properties. The effect of processing on allergenicity is variable by abolishing existing epitopes or generating neoallergens. The alterations depend on the intrinsic characteristics of the protein and the type and duration of treatment. Many studies have evaluated the molecular changes induced by processes such as thermal, pressure or enzymatic treatments. As some processing treatments have been shown to decrease the allergenicity of certain foods, food processing may play an important role in developing hypoallergenic foods and using them for food tolerance induction. This work provides an updated overview of the applications and influence of several processing techniques (thermal, pressure and enzymatic digestion) on nut allergenicity for nuts, namely, hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, almonds and walnuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Processing for Food Allergies)
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