Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics

A special issue of Algorithms (ISSN 1999-4893). This special issue belongs to the section "Algorithms for Multidisciplinary Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2023) | Viewed by 11333

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Senior Researcher at Photonics Laboratory, Perm Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (PFRC UB RAS), 614990 Perm, Russia
Interests: simulation; photonics; automated measurements; coding; data processing; distributed fiber-optic sensors; superconductivity

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Guest Editor
Lab head and Senior researcher at Photonics Laboratory, Perm Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (PFRC UB RAS), 614990 Perm, Russia
Interests: photonics; automated measurements; coding; data processing; distributed fiber-optic sensors; fiber-optic metrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid development of fiber optics and photonics technologies in recent decades has posed a number of computational challenges.

Even the simplest task of information transfer from one point to another requires a complex simulation of radiation propagation in various media, including optical fibers and integrated optics elements, considering nonlinear effects and other aspects.

Fiber optics sensing always deals with huge amounts of data. Data visualization and data analysis are based on sophisticated algorithms. Backscattering data mathematical processing not only affects sensors’ accuracy and sensitivity but can also extract information on individual physical quantities (temperature, deformation, etc.) and values. These algorithms are constantly being improved and optimized. The use of signal encoding techniques can improve sensor characteristics such as spatial resolution by orders of magnitude.

Big data analysis is used by scientists involved in different fiber optic measurements. Raw data from devices obtained during the study or the testing of various components are also subject to mandatory algorithmic processing. Additionally, artificial intelligence and machine learning methods are becoming increasingly popular. They are used quite effectively, both in cooperation with traditional algorithms and as their alternative.

The list of fiber optics applications where algorithms are intensively and effectively used is almost endless. We are pleased to announce the Special Issue of the Algorithms journal called "Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics" (in collaboration with Optical Reflectometry, Metrology & Sensing 2023—ORMS 2023, https://or-2023.permsc.ru/).

This special edition includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:

  • Algorithms for the radiation propagation simulation in various media;
  • Algorithmic implementation of optoelectronic devices and their components’ models, as well as the phenomena that occur in them;
  • Fiber-optic sensors’ probe sequences coding and decoding techniques for the received signals;
  • Algorithms for visualizing backscatter data in optical fibers, cables and integrated-optics elements;
  • New algorithms and optimization of existing methods for signal processing in fiber-optic sensors;
  • Artificial intelligence and machine learning in fiber optics and photonics;
  • Automated calculations in optical metrology;
  • Control algorithms for optoelectronic devices and systems;
  • Fiber-optic and integrated-optical elements’ manufacturing automation methods.

Dr. Fedor L. Barkov
Dr. Yuri Konstantinov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Algorithms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • algorithms for radiation propagation simulation in various media
  • algorithmic implementation of optoelectronic devices and their components’ models, as well as the phenomena that occur in them
  • fiber-optic sensors probe sequences’ coding and decoding techniques for the received signals
  • algorithms for visualizing backscatter data in optical fibers, cables and integrated-optics elements
  • new algorithms and optimization of existing methods for signal processing in fiber-optic sensors
  • artificial intelligence and machine learning in fiber optics and photonics
  • automated calculations in optical metrology
  • control algorithms for optoelectronic devices and systems
  • fiber-optic and integrated-optical elements’ manufacturing automation methods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 4293 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Model for Analysis of Laser Beam Distortions Using Monte Carlo and Shack–Hartmann Techniques: Numerical Study and Experimental Results
by Ilya Galaktionov, Julia Sheldakova, Alexander Nikitin, Vladimir Toporovsky and Alexis Kudryashov
Algorithms 2023, 16(7), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/a16070337 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The hybrid model for analyzing distortions of a laser beam passed through a moderately scattering medium with the number of scattering events up to 10 is developed and investigated. The model implemented the Monte Carlo technique to simulate the beam propagation through a [...] Read more.
The hybrid model for analyzing distortions of a laser beam passed through a moderately scattering medium with the number of scattering events up to 10 is developed and investigated. The model implemented the Monte Carlo technique to simulate the beam propagation through a scattering layer, a ray-tracing technique to propagate the scattered beam to the measurements plane, and the Shack–Hartmann technique to calculate the scattered laser beam distortions. The results obtained from the developed model were confirmed during the laboratory experiment. Both the numerical model and laboratory experiment showed that with an increase of the concentration value of scattering particles in the range from 105 to 106 mm−3, the amplitude of distortions of laser beam propagated through the layer of the scattering medium increases exponentially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics)
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20 pages, 4854 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Model of Fuse Effect Initiation in Fiber Core
by Victoria A. Starikova, Yuri A. Konin, Alexandra Yu. Petukhova, Svetlana S. Aleshkina, Andrey A. Petrov and Anatolii V. Perminov
Algorithms 2023, 16(7), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/a16070331 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1483
Abstract
This work focuses on the methods of creating in-fiber devices, such as sensors, filters, and scatterers, using the fiber fuse effect. The effect allows for the creation of structures in a fiber core. However, it is necessary to know exactly how this process [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the methods of creating in-fiber devices, such as sensors, filters, and scatterers, using the fiber fuse effect. The effect allows for the creation of structures in a fiber core. However, it is necessary to know exactly how this process works, when the plasma spark occurs, what size it reaches, and how it depends on external parameters such as power and wavelength of radiation. Thus, this present study aims to create the possibility of predicting the consequences of optical breakdown. This paper describes a mathematical model of the optical breakdown initiation in a fiber core based on the thermal conductivity equation. The breakdown generates a plasma spark, which subsequently moves along the fiber. The problem is solved in the axisymmetric formulation. The computational domain consists of four elements with different thermophysical properties at the boundaries of which conjugation conditions are fulfilled. The term describing the heat source in the model is determined by the wavelength of radiation and the refractive indices of the core and the shell and also includes the radiation absorption on the released electrons during the thermal ionization of the quartz glass. The temperature field distributions in the optical fiber are obtained. Based on the calculations, it is possible to estimate the occurrence times of various phase states inside the fiber, in particular, the plasma spark occurrence time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics)
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16 pages, 9134 KiB  
Article
Signal Processing in Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry Systems Based on Self-Sweeping Fiber Laser with Continuous-Wave Intensity Dynamics
by Nikita R. Poddubrovskii, Ivan A. Lobach and Sergey I. Kablukov
Algorithms 2023, 16(5), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/a16050260 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
We report on the development of an optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) system based on a continuous-wave Er-doped self-sweeping fiber laser. In this work, we investigate the influence of the input data processing procedure in an OFDR system on the resulting reflectograms and [...] Read more.
We report on the development of an optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) system based on a continuous-wave Er-doped self-sweeping fiber laser. In this work, we investigate the influence of the input data processing procedure in an OFDR system on the resulting reflectograms and noise level. In particular, several types of signal averaging (in time and frequency domain) and Fourier analysis are applied. We demonstrate that the averaging in the frequency domain can be applied to evaluate absolute values of the local scattering amplitudes related to the Rayleigh light scattering (RLS), which is associated with the interference of scattering signals on microscopic inhomogeneities in optical fibers. We found that the RLS signal remains unchanged in the case of signal averaging in time domain, while the noise floor level decreases by 30 dB with an increasing number of points from 1 to ~450. At the same time, it becomes possible to detect the spectral composition of the scattering at each point of the fiber using windowed Fourier transform. As a result, the sensitivity of the developed system allows us to measure the RLS signal at a level of about 20 dB above the noise floor. The described analysis methods can be useful in the development of distributed sensors based on Rayleigh OFDR systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics)
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15 pages, 3600 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Distributed Acoustic Sensors’ (DAS) Performance by the Simple Noise Reduction Algorithms Sequential Application
by Artem T. Turov, Yuri A. Konstantinov, Fedor L. Barkov, Dmitry A. Korobko, Igor O. Zolotovskii, Cesar A. Lopez-Mercado and Andrei A. Fotiadi
Algorithms 2023, 16(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/a16050217 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2746
Abstract
Moving differential and dynamic window moving averaging are simple and well-known signal processing algorithms. However, the most common methods of obtaining sufficient signal-to-noise ratios in distributed acoustic sensing use expensive and precise equipment such as laser sources, photoreceivers, etc., and neural network postprocessing, [...] Read more.
Moving differential and dynamic window moving averaging are simple and well-known signal processing algorithms. However, the most common methods of obtaining sufficient signal-to-noise ratios in distributed acoustic sensing use expensive and precise equipment such as laser sources, photoreceivers, etc., and neural network postprocessing, which results in an unacceptable price of an acoustic monitoring system for potential customers. This paper presents the distributed fiber-optic acoustic sensors data processing and noise suppression techniques applied both to raw data (spatial and temporal amplitude distributions) and to spectra obtained after the Fourier transform. The performance of algorithms’ individual parts in processing distributed acoustic sensor’s data obtained in laboratory conditions for an optical fiber subjected to various dynamic impact events is studied. A comparative analysis of these parts’ efficiency was carried out, and for each type of impact event, the most beneficial combinations were identified. The feasibility of existing noise reduction techniques performance improvement is proposed and tested. Presented algorithms are undemanding for computation resources and provide the signal-to-noise ratio enhancement of up to 13.1 dB. Thus, they can be useful in areas requiring the distributed acoustic monitoring systems’ cost reduction as maintaining acceptable performance while allowing the use of cheaper hardware. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics)
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15 pages, 4402 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Methods for Fiber Bragg Structures Spectrum Modeling
by Timur Agliullin, Vladimir Anfinogentov, Oleg Morozov, Airat Sakhabutdinov, Bulat Valeev, Ayna Niyazgulyeva and Yagmyrguly Garovov
Algorithms 2023, 16(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/a16020101 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
The work is dedicated to a comparative analysis of the following methods for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) spectral response modeling. The Layer Sweep (LS) method, which is similar to the common layer peeling algorithm, is based on the reflectance and transmittance determination for [...] Read more.
The work is dedicated to a comparative analysis of the following methods for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) spectral response modeling. The Layer Sweep (LS) method, which is similar to the common layer peeling algorithm, is based on the reflectance and transmittance determination for the plane waves propagating through layered structures, which results in the solution of a system of linear equations for the transmittance and reflectance of each layer using the sweep method. Another considered method is based on the determination of transfer matrices (TM) for the FBG as a whole. Firstly, a homogeneous FBG was modeled using both methods, and the resulting reflectance spectra were compared to the one obtained via a specialized commercial software package. Secondly, modeling results of a π-phase-shifted FBG were presented and discussed. For both FBG models, the influence of the partition interval of the LS method on the simulated spectrum was studied. Based on the analysis of the simulation data, additional required modeling conditions for phase-shifted FBGs were established, which enhanced the modeling performance of the LS method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics)
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19 pages, 4753 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modeling of Capillary Drawing Stability for Hollow Optical Fibers
by Vladimir Pervadchuk, Daria Vladimirova and Anna Derevyankina
Algorithms 2023, 16(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/a16020083 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The stability problem solution of the manufacturing (drawing) of the quartz capillaries (pipes) for microstructured optical fibers (hole-assisted fiber) is important for determining the effective technological production modes. This importance is also caused by the high cost of fiber production and strict requirements [...] Read more.
The stability problem solution of the manufacturing (drawing) of the quartz capillaries (pipes) for microstructured optical fibers (hole-assisted fiber) is important for determining the effective technological production modes. This importance is also caused by the high cost of fiber production and strict requirements for the accuracy of the fiber’s geometric characteristics. Therefore, a theoretical approach to this problem is relevant and necessary. A modified capillary drawing model that takes into account inertial, viscous, and surface tension forces, as well as all types of heat transfer is proposed in the research. Within the framework of the linear theory of stability, a mathematical model of isothermal and nonisothermal capillary drawing has been developed. The stability of the process is studied depending on the drawing ratio and the Reynolds number. The analysis of the sensitivity of the process to perturbations in the boundary conditions is carried out. The secondary flow that occurs upon transition to the region of instability is also studied. It has been found that at draw ratios above critical values (instability region), undamped oscillations arise. The existence of optimal parameters of the heating element is shown: temperature distribution over the furnace surface and furnace radius, at which the stability of the process of drawing quartz tubes increases significantly (several times). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Calculations in Fiber Optics and Photonics)
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