Advanced Modelling, Simulations and Measurements for Sound Insulation in Buildings

A special issue of Acoustics (ISSN 2624-599X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 32371

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: building acoustics; noise control; architectural acoustics; acoustic materials; thermoacoustics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Acoustic conditions characterized by low levels of extraneous noise inside buildings represent a fundamental requirement for improving the quality of life of people living and carrying out their activities in different enclosed spaces. Moreover, the legal requirements concerning building acoustics require that building partitions comply with specific features in situ for both airborne and structure-borne noise.

In this field, the development of increasingly accurate calculation models to predict the behavior of single and double walls as well as multilayered elements against sound transmission, the making of new materials such as metamaterials and sustainable acoustic materials, and the use of advanced measurement techniques and equipment based for example on laser Doppler vibrometry represent fundamental tools for assessing and improving sound insulation performance in buildings.

This Special Issue is aimed at collecting original research articles, case-studies, and investigations addressing all the above mentioned issues from a theoretical, numerical, and experimental point of view, highlighting, at the same time, the potential of advanced modeling, recently developed materials, and the newest in situ measurement techniques for designing, assessing, and improving acoustic conditions inside buildings, achieving better protection against unwanted noise. Authors are also invited to submit papers on noise and vibration control in building service plants as well as works on human perception of airborne and impact sound insulation obtained by comparing objective acoustic data and subjective ratings in laboratory listening tests. Numerical and experimental results about the assessment of flanking sound transmission due to airborne and structure-borne noise are welcome as well.

Prof. Dr. Rosario Aniello Romano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Airborne noise
  • Impact noise
  • Multilayer elements
  • Flanking sound transmission
  • Modeling and simulation
  • Noise transmission measurements
  • Sound insulation materials
  • Noise and vibration control

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 10520 KiB  
Article
Acoustical Treatments on Ventilation Ducts through Walls: Experimental Results and Novel Models
by Erik Nilsson, Sylvain Ménard, Delphine Bard Hagberg and Nikolaos-Georgios Vardaxis
Acoustics 2022, 4(1), 276-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4010017 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4318
Abstract
Sound reduction is complex to estimate for acoustical treatments on ventilation ducts through walls. Various acoustical treatments are available for ventilation ducts, including internal lining (absorption along the inner perimeter), external lagging (external sound insulation), silencer, and suspended ceilings. Previous studies have examined [...] Read more.
Sound reduction is complex to estimate for acoustical treatments on ventilation ducts through walls. Various acoustical treatments are available for ventilation ducts, including internal lining (absorption along the inner perimeter), external lagging (external sound insulation), silencer, and suspended ceilings. Previous studies have examined how silencers and the internal lining affect the sound transmission of ventilation ducts. However, there are few theories to predict the effect of external lagging in combination with ventilation ducts and how the total sound reduction is affected. This article aims to investigate different acoustical treatments and develop theoretical models when external lagging with stone wool is used to reduce flanking sound transmission via the surface area of ventilation ducts. Theoretical models are developed for external lagging and compared with measurement data. Measurements and theory are generally in good agreement over the third-octave band range of 100–5000 Hz. The developed models clarify that the distance closest to the wall has the main impact on sound reduction for a combined system with a wall and a ventilation duct. Suspended ceilings and silencers are found to be enough as acoustical treatments for certain combinations of ventilation ducts and walls. However, external lagging seems to be the only effective solution in offices and schools when a large ventilation duct passes through a wall with high sound reduction. Full article
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24 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Sound Insulation Using Artificial Neural Networks—Part I: Lightweight Wooden Floor Structures
by Mohamad Bader Eddin, Sylvain Ménard, Delphine Bard Hagberg, Jean-Luc Kouyoumji and Nikolaos-Georgios Vardaxis
Acoustics 2022, 4(1), 203-226; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4010013 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4705
Abstract
The artificial neural networks approach is applied to estimate the acoustic performance for airborne and impact sound insulation curves of different lightweight wooden floors. The prediction model is developed based on 252 standardized laboratory measurement curves in one-third octave bands (50–5000 Hz). Physical [...] Read more.
The artificial neural networks approach is applied to estimate the acoustic performance for airborne and impact sound insulation curves of different lightweight wooden floors. The prediction model is developed based on 252 standardized laboratory measurement curves in one-third octave bands (50–5000 Hz). Physical and geometric characteristics of each floor structure (materials, thickness, density, dimensions, mass and more) are utilized as network parameters. The predictive capability is satisfactory, and the model can estimate airborne sound better than impact sound cases especially in the middle-frequency range (250–1000 Hz), while higher frequency bands often show high errors. The forecast of the weighted airborne sound reduction index Rw was calculated with a maximum error of 2 dB. However, the error increased up to 5 dB in the worse case prediction of the weighted normalized impact sound pressure level Ln,w. The model showed high variations near the fundamental and critical frequency areas which affect the accuracy. A feature attribution analysis explored the essential parameters on estimation of sound insulation. The thickness of the insulation materials, the density of cross-laminated timber slab and the concrete floating floors and the total density of floor structures seem to affect predictions the most. A comparison between wet and dry floor solution systems indicated the importance of the upper part of floors to estimate airborne and impact sound in low frequencies. Full article
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22 pages, 8175 KiB  
Article
Sound Reduction of Ventilation Ducts through Walls: Experimental Results and Updated Models
by Erik Nilsson, Nikolaos-Georgios Vardaxis, Sylvain Ménard and Delphine Bard Hagberg
Acoustics 2021, 3(4), 695-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3040044 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4103
Abstract
Ventilation ducts can have a negative effect on the sound reduction index between two rooms if they pass through the dividing structure without treatments. The overall sound reduction of a ventilation duct is dependent on several factors including the transmission loss when sound [...] Read more.
Ventilation ducts can have a negative effect on the sound reduction index between two rooms if they pass through the dividing structure without treatments. The overall sound reduction of a ventilation duct is dependent on several factors including the transmission loss when sound is breaking in and out from the duct. This study aims to model the sound reduction of a combined system with a separating wall and a ventilation duct through it. Three walls, characterized according to ISO 717-1, are combined with three different ventilation ducts, two circular and one rectangular with different dimensions. Laboratory measurement data are used to determine the sound reduction of the different configurations and the type of treatments needed for each configuration. A proposed model with existing theory for describing sound transmission losses of circular and rectangular ventilation ducts predicts the shape of the measurement data for many frequency bands. A new theory part is developed through an iterative process for circular ducts, which is based on measurements with previous methods and studies as a guide because the existing prediction scheme is somewhat perplexing. For rectangular ducts, the existing theory has been updated to better match measurement data. The application of the proposed theory and model in this article shows similar results when compared to measurements. The difference in weighted sound reduction index between developed theories and measurement data is 0–1 dB for every configuration. Full article
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16 pages, 14103 KiB  
Article
Perforated Steel Stud to Improve the Acoustic Insulation of Drywall Partitions
by Arun Arjunan, Ahmad Baroutaji and John Robinson
Acoustics 2021, 3(4), 679-694; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3040043 - 9 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5073
Abstract
Steel studs are an inevitable part of drywall construction as they are lightweight and offer the required structural stability. However, the studs act as sound bridges between the plasterboards, reducing the overall sound insulation of the wall. Overcoming this often calls for wider [...] Read more.
Steel studs are an inevitable part of drywall construction as they are lightweight and offer the required structural stability. However, the studs act as sound bridges between the plasterboards, reducing the overall sound insulation of the wall. Overcoming this often calls for wider cavity walls and complex stud decoupling fixtures that increase the installation cost while reducing the floor area. As an alternative approach, this research reveals the potential of perforated studs to improve the acoustic insulation of drywall partitions. The acoustic and structural performance is characterized using a validated finite element model that acted as a prediction tool in reducing the number of physical tests required. The results established that an acoustic numerical model featuring fluid-structure-interaction can predict the weighted sound reduction index of a stud wall assembly at an accuracy of ±1 dB. The model was used to analyze six perforated stud designs and found them to outperform the sound insulation of non-perforated drywall partitions by reducing the sound bridging. Overall, the best performing perforated stud design was found to offer improvements in acoustic insulation of up to 4 dB, while being structurally compliant. Full article
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14 pages, 4376 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Microperforated Panel Absorbers with Circular and Slit Hole Geometries
by Pedro Cobo
Acoustics 2021, 3(4), 665-678; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3040042 - 4 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3459
Abstract
Although the original proposal of microperforated panels by Maa consisted of an array of minute circular holes evenly distributed in a thin plate, other hole geometries have been recently suggested that provide similar absorption curves to those of circular holes. With the arrival [...] Read more.
Although the original proposal of microperforated panels by Maa consisted of an array of minute circular holes evenly distributed in a thin plate, other hole geometries have been recently suggested that provide similar absorption curves to those of circular holes. With the arrival of modern machining technologies, such as 3D printing, panels microperforated with slit-shaped holes are being specially considered. Therefore, models able to predict the absorption performance of microperforated panels with variable hole geometry are needed. The aim of this article is to analyze three models for such absorbing systems, namely, the Maa model for circular holes, the Randeberg–Vigran model for slit-shaped holes, and the Equivalent Fluid model for both geometries. The absorption curves predicted for these three models are compared with the measured curves of three panels microperforated with spirally shaped slits. Full article
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14 pages, 1229 KiB  
Article
Efficient Forced Response Computations of Acoustical Systems with a State-Space Approach
by Art J. R. Pelling and Ennes Sarradj
Acoustics 2021, 3(3), 581-593; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3030037 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3826
Abstract
State-space models have been successfully employed for model order reduction and control purposes in acoustics in the past. However, due to the cubic complexity of the singular value decomposition, which makes up the core of many subspace system identification (SSID) methods, the construction [...] Read more.
State-space models have been successfully employed for model order reduction and control purposes in acoustics in the past. However, due to the cubic complexity of the singular value decomposition, which makes up the core of many subspace system identification (SSID) methods, the construction of large scale state-space models from high-dimensional measurement data has been problematic in the past. Recent advances of numerical linear algebra have brought forth computationally efficient randomized rank-revealing matrix factorizations and it has been shown that these factorizations can be used to enhance SSID methods such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of the so-called generalized ERA to acoustical systems and high-dimensional input data by means of an example. Furthermore, we introduce a new efficient method of forced response computation that relies on a state-space model in quasi-diagonal form. Numerical experiments reveal that our proposed method is more efficient than previous state-space methods and can even outperform frequency domain convolutions in certain scenarios. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 1358 KiB  
Review
Perspectives on the Sonic Environment and Noise Mitigations during the COVID-19 Pandemic Era
by Heow Pueh Lee and Sanjay Kumar
Acoustics 2021, 3(3), 493-506; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3030033 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4691
Abstract
The pandemic has impacted every facet of our life, society, and environment. It has also affected both the requirement and challenges for acoustic research and applications. The present article attempts to present a summary of the impact of COVID-19 on several aspects of [...] Read more.
The pandemic has impacted every facet of our life, society, and environment. It has also affected both the requirement and challenges for acoustic research and applications. The present article attempts to present a summary of the impact of COVID-19 on several aspects of acoustics, from the changes in the sonic environment due to reduced human and industrial activities to natural ventilation requirements for mitigating the transmission of coronavirus while mitigating noise, and, more importantly, discusses the potential impacts and challenges for acoustics in the post-COVID-19 era. The present study specifically examines the effects of COVID-19 on the sonic environment, the acoustic treatment by considering the need for constant disinfection, the noise control on construction and neighborhood activities in response to an increased number of people working from home, and the need for having natural ventilation while mitigating noise at home and offices. Full article
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