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Bacteria, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 4 articles

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11 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Clinically Relevant Acinetobacter Species from Selected Freshwater Sources in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
by Mary Ayobami Adewoyin, Adewoyin Martin Ogunmolasuyi and Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
Bacteria 2024, 3(3), 160-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3030011 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Background: Several Acinetobacter species live in different ecosystems, such as soil, freshwater, wastewater, and solid wastes, which has attracted considerable research interests in public health and agriculture. Methods: We assessed the distribution of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis in three freshwater resources (Great [...] Read more.
Background: Several Acinetobacter species live in different ecosystems, such as soil, freshwater, wastewater, and solid wastes, which has attracted considerable research interests in public health and agriculture. Methods: We assessed the distribution of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis in three freshwater resources (Great Fish, Keiskemma, and Tyhume rivers) in South Africa between April 2017–March 2018. Molecular identification of Acinetobacter species was performed using Acinetobacter-specific primers targeting the recA gene, whilst confirmed species were further delineated into A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis. Similarly, virulence genes; afa/draBC, epsA, fimH, OmpA, PAI, sfa/focDE, and traT in the two Acinetobacter species were assessed. Results: Our finding revealed that 410 (48.58%) and 23 (2.7%) of the isolates were confirmed as A. baumannii and A. nosocomalis, respectively. Additionally, three hundred and eight (75.12%) A. baumannii and three (13.04%) A. nosocomialis exhibited one or more of the virulence genes among the seven tested. OmpA was the most prevalent virulence gene in A. baumannii in freshwater sources. Conclusions: The distribution of clinically important Acinetobacter species in the freshwater sources studied suggests possible contamination such as the release of hospital wastewater and other clinical wastes into the environment thereby posing a risk to public health. Full article
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19 pages, 804 KiB  
Review
Review on Applied Applications of Microbiome on Human Lives
by Nitin S. Kamble, Surojit Bera, Sanjivani A. Bhedase, Vinita Gaur and Debabrata Chowdhury
Bacteria 2024, 3(3), 141-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3030010 - 10 Jul 2024
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Abstract
It is imperative to say that we are immersed in a sea of microorganisms due to their ubiquitous presence on the planet, from soil to water and air. Human bodies harbor a vast array of microorganisms from both the inside and out called [...] Read more.
It is imperative to say that we are immersed in a sea of microorganisms due to their ubiquitous presence on the planet, from soil to water and air. Human bodies harbor a vast array of microorganisms from both the inside and out called the human microbiome. It is composed of single-celled organisms, including archaea, fungi, viruses, and bacteria, including bacteriophages, where bacteria are the biggest players, and this is collectively referred to as the human microbiome. These organisms have a symbiotic relationship with humans and impact human physiology where they colonize various sites on and in the human body, adapting to specific features of each niche. However, dysbiosis, or the deviation from normal microbial composition, is associated with adverse health effects, disrupted ecosystems, and eco-imbalance in nature. In this review, we delve into the comprehensive oversight of bacteria, their cosmopolitan presence, and their additional applications affecting human lives. Full article
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5 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Interaction between Plants and Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) for Sustainable Development
by Debasis Mitra, Marika Pellegrini and Beatriz E. Guerra-Sierra
Bacteria 2024, 3(3), 136-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3030009 - 27 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The relationship between plants and microorganisms is of paramount importance in maintaining the delicate balance of life on Earth, as evidenced by their interconnectedness in the intricate tapestry of nature [...] Full article
18 pages, 1390 KiB  
Review
Medical Scope of Biofilm and Quorum Sensing during Biofilm Formation: Systematic Review
by Mulat Erkihun, Zelalem Asmare, Kirubel Endalamew, Birhanu Getie, Teklehaimanot Kiros and Ayenew Berhan
Bacteria 2024, 3(3), 118-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3030008 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Biofilms are accumulations of microorganisms in an extracellular polymeric substance matrix which are composed of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Many bacteria can switch between a planktonic form and a biofilm form. The planktonic bacteria have relatively high cell growth and reproduction [...] Read more.
Biofilms are accumulations of microorganisms in an extracellular polymeric substance matrix which are composed of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Many bacteria can switch between a planktonic form and a biofilm form. The planktonic bacteria have relatively high cell growth and reproduction rates and have a reduced likelihood of survival but can adapt to occupy new habitats. The biofilm state appears to be a natural and predominant state of bacteria. The need for the formation of bacterial biofilm is that it enhances the tolerance of bacteria to harsh environmental conditions, thereby allowing bacteria to avoid being washed away by water flow or the bloodstream by simply attaching to a surface or tissue, and the EPS matrix protects bacteria cells, in deeper layers, against antimicrobial agents, probably by limiting the diffusion of these agents. Biofilm formation steps are initial contact/attachment to the surface, followed by micro-colony formation, maturation and formation of the architecture of the biofilm, and finally detachment/dispersion of the biofilm. Once formed, biofilm restricts bacterial mobility and increases cell density. Secretions of autoinducers into the environment are critical for cross-signaling between bacteria. This cross-talk is called quorum sensing (QS). Quorum sensing is a cell–cell communication mechanism between bacteria that allows specific processes to be controlled, such as biofilm formation and virulence factor expression. Bacterial quorum sensing signaling mainly consists of acyl-homoserine lactones (produced by Gram-negatives), autoinducing peptides (produced by Gram-positives), and autoinducer-2 (produced by both Gram-negatives and Gram-positives). Therefore, this review is aimed at how bacterial biofilms work and are formed. Full article
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