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Youth, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 24 articles

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20 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Discrimination towards Youth in Goods and Services Markets: Evidence from Field Experiments in France
by David M. Gray, Yannick L’Horty, Souleymane Mbaye and Pascale Petit
Youth 2022, 2(4), 772-791; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040055 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1538
Abstract
In this study, we carried out seven distinct and independent rounds of correspondence tests to detect discriminatory behavior in domains and markets in France that have not previously been subjected to much investigation in the literature. The study areas included: purchasing a used [...] Read more.
In this study, we carried out seven distinct and independent rounds of correspondence tests to detect discriminatory behavior in domains and markets in France that have not previously been subjected to much investigation in the literature. The study areas included: purchasing a used car; purchasing an auto insurance policy; applying for a car loan; purchasing supplemental health insurance; enrolling in an adult training program; purchasing an existing small business; and renting vacation accommodations. Access to these items and services are associated with either potential pathways to a middle-class job or hallmarks of a middle-class living standard. We seek to discern evidence of discriminatory behavior according to the criteria of age, gender, ethnic origin, and the reputation of the neighborhood of residence (advantaged or disadvantaged). We discern statistically significant patterns in our observed statistical outcome (callback rates) in all seven markets, which we interpret as possibly indicative of discriminatory behavior; however, the criteria, the magnitudes, and the signs differ from one market to another. One finding is that differential treatment based on ethnicity and the reputation of the neighborhood (i.e., neutral or disadvantaged) might not be as systematic and mutually reinforcing as they are frequently perceived to be in the domains of labor and housing markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School-to-Work Transition of NEETS)
13 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
From Sport to Work? Exploring Potentials in a Moroccan Sport-for-Employability Programme
by Louis Moustakas, Viviane Raub, Yassine Moufagued and Karen Petry
Youth 2022, 2(4), 759-771; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040054 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Sport for development (SFD) has become an increasingly recognised and used approach to support positive social development across several contexts and thematic areas, including as it relates to improving the employability of young people not in employment or education (NEETs). Despite this, there [...] Read more.
Sport for development (SFD) has become an increasingly recognised and used approach to support positive social development across several contexts and thematic areas, including as it relates to improving the employability of young people not in employment or education (NEETs). Despite this, there has been limited research in this area, and we only have a partial picture of the experiences, mechanisms, and design of sport-for-employability programmes. Responding to this, the following paper presents the results of a qualitative study on the experiences and outcomes associated with an employability-focused SFD programme based in Casablanca, Morocco. Results illustrate how the programme provided crucial support to encourage consistent engagement and that this programme offered valuable opportunities for practical experiences and recognised qualifications. Nonetheless, many participants remain in short-term or precarious employment situations. Thus, closer alignment with job market needs and engagement with employment policy issues are likely needed to support longer-term, more secure employment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School-to-Work Transition of NEETS)
13 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
“I’m Always Available”: Early Adolescent and Parent Perspectives of Parenting through Interactive Technology
by Sarah Tulane, Audrey Southwick, Mark Ferguson and Jaylynn Lerma
Youth 2022, 2(4), 746-758; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040053 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Background: Interactive technology (texting, social media, email) is an engrained element of communication in family systems. Methods: This qualitative study examined parenting practices in communication via interactive technology using a sample of 9 parents and 9 early adolescents between the ages of 12 [...] Read more.
Background: Interactive technology (texting, social media, email) is an engrained element of communication in family systems. Methods: This qualitative study examined parenting practices in communication via interactive technology using a sample of 9 parents and 9 early adolescents between the ages of 12 to 15. Parents and adolescents completed phone interviews separately. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and dyadic techniques. Results: Participants indicated they use interactive technology as channels of communication and for convenient connection. Parenting practices used through interactive technology that both parents and early adolescents identified included open communication and availability, guidance, expressions of parental warmth, and establishing trust. Conclusion: The results of this study provide support for a family systems thinking paradigm when examining interactive technology use in parent-teen relationships. Full article
13 pages, 393 KiB  
Article
Intricate Realities: Mental Health among Trans, Nonbinary, and Gender Diverse College Students
by E. B. Gross, Shanna K. Kattari, Rachelle Wilcox, Susan Ernst, Monique Steel and Diana Parrish
Youth 2022, 2(4), 733-745; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040052 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
The rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation have all increased among U.S. college students. The utilization of mental health services has also risen. Transgender/gender diverse (TGD) young people experience high rates of mental health concerns. Little is known regarding TGD students needing [...] Read more.
The rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation have all increased among U.S. college students. The utilization of mental health services has also risen. Transgender/gender diverse (TGD) young people experience high rates of mental health concerns. Little is known regarding TGD students needing mental health services, if they are accessing them, and the differences in who accesses these services. This pilot study (N = 121), conducted online from 2021 to 2022, explores the mental health of the TGD students and the mental health services at a Midwest public university. Of the total sample, 68.1% described their mental health as being fair or poor. Disabled students were significantly more likely to self-report a negative mental health status (76.7%) than their non-disabled peers (58.9%). Nonbinary individuals were also significantly more likely to indicate negative mental health (79.5%) than their binary counterparts (47.6%). Notably, 6.6% of students with current depression diagnoses, 7.1% with current anxiety diagnoses, 11.8% with recent thoughts of NSSI, and 3.3% with recent suicide attempts had not accessed mental health services. This study indicates the need for more accessible TGD affirming mental health care for TGD students, and opportunities for innovation with interventions to better support TGD college and university students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LGBTIQ+ Youth: Experiences, Needs, and Aspirations)
16 pages, 861 KiB  
Article
Stigma-Marking of COVID-19 Patients in Facebook and Twitter of Youth in Malaysia in 2020–2021
by Su-Hie Ting and Mohamad Heakal Shamsul
Youth 2022, 2(4), 717-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040051 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2987
Abstract
At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the public were still unaware of the disease and its transmission, and information on susceptibility and severity was not well understood. During this time, stigma of COVID-19 patients had led to some people dying [...] Read more.
At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the public were still unaware of the disease and its transmission, and information on susceptibility and severity was not well understood. During this time, stigma of COVID-19 patients had led to some people dying in their homes because they did not want to be seen seeking treatment and getting stigmatized in the process. The study examined stigma-marking of COVID-19 patients in Facebook and Twitter messages written by youth in Malaysia. A total of 100 messages were collected from the posts of young people in Twitter (n = 66) and Facebook (n = 34) from March 2020 to April 2021 during the early phase of the pandemic. The social media postings, mostly written in Malay, were analyzed for stigma-markers. The results showed that COVID-19 stigma words were mostly related to health (57%), ethnicity (29%), social class (13%), and work (1%). The frequencies of the types of stigma-marker in Facebook comments and tweets are similar. COVID-19 patients were referred to as stupid, irresponsible, and criminals. Racist remarks were also evident in the social media messages. The findings indicate that people who are already victims of the disease are victimized further due to the stigmatization by strangers and people in their social and work circles. Full article
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12 pages, 1426 KiB  
Article
Youth Voices and Social Participation during a Pandemic: Dream Teens Powered by Jovem Cascais
by Cátia Branquinho, Sara Silva, Joana Santos, Inês Sousa Martins, Catarina Gonçalves, Catarina Noronha, Tânia Gaspar and Margarida Gaspar de Matos
Youth 2022, 2(4), 705-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040050 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
In an unprecedented scenario, much of the research and interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which focused on young people, found themselves suspended. (1) Background: The goals of this project were to investigate (Study 1) social participation and positive development among young people in [...] Read more.
In an unprecedented scenario, much of the research and interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which focused on young people, found themselves suspended. (1) Background: The goals of this project were to investigate (Study 1) social participation and positive development among young people in Cascais, Portugal, and to investigate (Study 2-a case study) the implementation of a program promoting active citizenship, social participation, and social entrepreneurship. At the same time, it was intended to constitute a resource and strategy to diminish the social alienation exacerbated by the pandemic. (2) Methods: SPSS v.26 software was used to analyze quantitative data from questionnaires used in the study of social participation, as well as the pre- and post-test impacts, and MAXQDA 2020 software was used to analyze qualitative data from YouTube discussions about youth needs and strategies for their problems, as well as from focus groups. (3) Results: In S1, it was evident that young people’s expectations of participation in the community were not defined and that their expected participation in the community was of a weekly nature. They considered themselves to have a good sense of belonging to the community or group and had reasonable social self-efficacy. Girls showed higher scores in Expectations of Community Participation and Active Participation. In their positive development, they did not have a defined evaluation of their competence, but their connection with others was evaluated as good. Boys showed higher levels of Competence. They said that every week they make 1 h of their day available to help others, and they did not frequently report feelings of social alienation. In S2, the evaluation of the impact of the project generally showed an improvement in the action research skills of the participants. At the end, six projects were proposed. In the analysis of the participants’ voices, the themes related to Substance Use, Social Capital, and Love and Sexuality stood out with higher participation and lower participation in the themes of Diversity, Culture and Housing. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest a need to encourage social participation, active citizenship, and entrepreneurship, along with their knowledge and skills for action. The promotion of debate and knowledge on issues related to young people’s lives seems to be a priority, especially issues related to Diversity, Culture and Housing. The Dream Teens model may prove to be an important strategy in this work, suggesting that this project may constitute a relevant model for future work. Full article
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14 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
“We Just Want to Be Treated Normally and to Have That Healthcare That Comes along with It”: Rainbow Young People’s Experiences of Primary Care in Aotearoa New Zealand
by Alex Ker, Tracey Gardiner, Rona Carroll, Sally B. Rose, Sonya J. Morgan, Susan M. Garrett and Eileen M. McKinlay
Youth 2022, 2(4), 691-704; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040049 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3297
Abstract
There is growing recognition that primary care provision plays a pivotal role in improving health outcomes for LGBTQIA+ (rainbow) youth, but few studies have centered on youth experiences of primary care in Aotearoa New Zealand. This study aimed to explore the experiences and [...] Read more.
There is growing recognition that primary care provision plays a pivotal role in improving health outcomes for LGBTQIA+ (rainbow) youth, but few studies have centered on youth experiences of primary care in Aotearoa New Zealand. This study aimed to explore the experiences and perspectives of rainbow youth when engaging with primary care. Two focus groups were held in 2021 with eleven rainbow young people aged 13–23 years recruited with assistance from local rainbow support organizations in Aotearoa NZ. Groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were identified: (i) anticipated and enacted discrimination, (ii) building trust, (iii) confidentiality and (iv) healthcare provider knowledge and competence. Participants spoke of some positive experiences but perceived these to be lucky or surprising, with most also having encountered less supportive interactions and heteronormative views. Visual indicators of rainbow-friendliness in clinic settings were appreciated only if affirmed by inclusive and accepting practice. Frustrations were expressed about gaps in provider knowledge and the sense of having to educate clinicians about rainbow-specific health issues. Primary care providers can facilitate positive consultations with rainbow young people by using clear communication to build trusting relationships, and by being accepting, non-judgmental and transparent about confidentiality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LGBTIQ+ Youth: Experiences, Needs, and Aspirations)
10 pages, 404 KiB  
Systematic Review
Associations between Traumatic Experience and Resilience in Adolescent Refugees: A Scoping Review
by Solomon D. Danga, Babatope O. Adebiyi, Erica Koegler, Conran Joseph and Nicolette V. Roman
Youth 2022, 2(4), 681-690; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040048 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
Research on adolescent refugee resilience is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to resettlement areas and integration into a new country. However, the current literature does not provide clear evidence on the determinants of resilience factors and the association between traumatic experiences [...] Read more.
Research on adolescent refugee resilience is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to resettlement areas and integration into a new country. However, the current literature does not provide clear evidence on the determinants of resilience factors and the association between traumatic experiences and resilience among adolescent refugees. Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant articles. Inclusion criteria for articles were (i) potential traumatic experience was the independent variable and resilience was an outcome variable of the study, (ii) association between traumatic experiences and resilience was reported, (iii) participants of the study included adolescent refugees or asylum seekers and (iv) to be peer-reviewed publications based on primary data, written in English and published between 1 January 2010 and 20 January 2022. Eight articles were included in this scoping review. The review found that most of the included studies identified individual, relational/family and contextual/cultural factors as determinants of resilience. However, there were inconsistencies in the association between traumatic experiences and resilience. This review suggests that intervention strategies implemented among adolescent refugees should focus on enhancing individual, family/relational, and cultural/social factors to protect adolescents from possible poor mental health consequences after exposure to trauma. Full article
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13 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
Self-Efficacy, Perceived Stress, and Individual Adjustment among College-Attending Emerging Adults
by Rebecca C. Madson, Paula B. Perrone, Sara E. Goldstein and Chih-Yuan Steven Lee
Youth 2022, 2(4), 668-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040047 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3533
Abstract
In a large, ethnically diverse sample of college-attending emerging adults (N = 693; ages 18–29), the current study examines associations between self-efficacy and individual adjustment (academic satisfaction, depressive symptoms, subjective physical health, and loneliness), directly and indirectly through perceived stress. Moderated mediation effects [...] Read more.
In a large, ethnically diverse sample of college-attending emerging adults (N = 693; ages 18–29), the current study examines associations between self-efficacy and individual adjustment (academic satisfaction, depressive symptoms, subjective physical health, and loneliness), directly and indirectly through perceived stress. Moderated mediation effects by sex, ethnicity, school year, and first-generation status were also explored. Using PROCESS, results show that self-efficacy was directly related to adjustment, and indirectly related through lower stress. Sex moderated the associations between self-efficacy and stress as well as stress and depressive symptoms; the relations were stronger in women. School year moderated how stress was associated with academic satisfaction in that the negative association was not found among the fourth-year students, but in all other peers. First-generation status moderated the negative association of self-efficacy and stress, with it being greater for first-generation college students compared to their peers. In addition, self-efficacy was positively related to academic satisfaction for first-generation students, but no relation was found for other students. Full article
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14 pages, 925 KiB  
Article
The Role of Positive Social Institutions in Promoting Hope and Flourishing among Sexual and Gender Minorities: A Multi-Group Analysis
by Jedediah E. Bragg, Shane R. Brady and Daniel Howell
Youth 2022, 2(4), 654-667; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040046 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Social work practice is grounded in the symbiotic relationship between macrosystemic community work and direct practice with individuals; however, following a resurgence in emphasis on evidence-based clinical social work in higher education, research on community-building efforts within social work has waned. Among sexual [...] Read more.
Social work practice is grounded in the symbiotic relationship between macrosystemic community work and direct practice with individuals; however, following a resurgence in emphasis on evidence-based clinical social work in higher education, research on community-building efforts within social work has waned. Among sexual and gender minority populations (SGM), research has indicated a vast array of negative outcomes associated with added stressors, such as stigma, discrimination, and marginalization impacting the population. As such, this study attempts to re-focus the attention of social work practice on the importance of building community, especially for SGM populations. Via a multi-group analysis, the relationship between community (positive social institutions), hope, and flourishing was explored in both the cisgender-heterosexual population and that of the sexual and gender minority population (n = 586) within the United States. Results indicate that there are differences with positive social institutions directly impacting flourishing and indirectly through hope, whereas among the cisgender-heterosexual population, positive social institutions impact flourishing indirectly through hope, and not directly. As such, it is imperative that social workers focus on building strong supportive communities for SGM populations in order to directly and indirectly impact their overall flourishing and wellbeing. Full article
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8 pages, 253 KiB  
Concept Paper
Enterprising Self through Higher Education: Youth, Aspirations and Future Amidst Academic Entrepreneurialism
by Hei-Hang Hayes Tang and Yan Zhang
Youth 2022, 2(4), 646-653; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040045 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
This paper examines the macro trends, policy responses, and their impact on youth and their aspirations about the future. It uses the conceptualisation of “the self as enterprise” to focus our discussions about how, and to what extent, youth try to “enterprise” their [...] Read more.
This paper examines the macro trends, policy responses, and their impact on youth and their aspirations about the future. It uses the conceptualisation of “the self as enterprise” to focus our discussions about how, and to what extent, youth try to “enterprise” their selves through higher education amidst the global rise of academic entrepreneurialism. The paper addresses the new reality of changing economies and creative disruptions of employment markets facing youth and their futures. We will talk about the way youth career aspirations will be reconsidered and the role of higher education in it. We also discuss the in-betweenness of materialistic and post-materialistic pursuits among young people, as well as the topic about “enterprising self” through higher education and innovating futures using youth’s entrepreneurial mindset, competence, and “self-entrepreneurship”. The paper will end by discussing some inspirations and insights for policies and practices and empirical research concerning the topic of youth, futures, and aspirations. Full article
13 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
Predicting Youth Information Management in Emerging Adulthood from Parental Mindfulness and Social Support
by Sara E. Goldstein, John F. Gunn III, Jeanie Park, Romi Paldi and Csilla Greiner
Youth 2022, 2(4), 633-645; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040044 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
The current study examines associations between mindful parenting, family support, and youth information management practices (disclosure, lying, and secrecy) in a diverse sample of college-attending emerging adults (n = 304). Participants were recruited through college classes, and students completed surveys in classrooms [...] Read more.
The current study examines associations between mindful parenting, family support, and youth information management practices (disclosure, lying, and secrecy) in a diverse sample of college-attending emerging adults (n = 304). Participants were recruited through college classes, and students completed surveys in classrooms or in nearby campus spaces. Data were analyzed to assess for the potential interactive implications of parental mindfulness and support. Results indicate that both parenting variables are important to consider when conceptualizing emerging adults’ information management. Youth who reported the highest levels of parental mindfulness and support also disclosed the most to their parents about their daily activities. In contrast, youth who reported the lowest levels of mindfulness and support lied the most to their parents. Low support was also associated with increased secrecy. Results suggest that parent-youth relationships continue to be important through the emerging adult developmental period, especially in terms of promoting communication practices that can help youth adjust to their increasingly complex worlds. Full article
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23 pages, 603 KiB  
Article
Consequences of COVID-19 on Education and Work of Young Adults: An Expert and Peer Interview Study in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland of Their Perspectives on the Past, Present and Future
by Manuela Egger and Stephan Gerhard Huber
Youth 2022, 2(4), 610-632; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040043 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3034
Abstract
Young adults have experienced significant changes and cutbacks due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated how young adults from Germany, Austria and Switzerland experienced their educational and vocational situation in the past and how they see their current situation and their future. The [...] Read more.
Young adults have experienced significant changes and cutbacks due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated how young adults from Germany, Austria and Switzerland experienced their educational and vocational situation in the past and how they see their current situation and their future. The data was collected through expert and peer interviews, i.e., that some of our 17- to 20-years old interviewees were trained after the expert interview to conduct interviews with their peers themselves. The analysis shows challenges such as concerns over the socially perceived worthlessness of degrees during COVID-19, the prospective fear of difficulty in making contacts when starting in a new place, or the loss of motivation due to perceived omnipresence of school in everyday life. Changes such as a lack of communal celebration of graduation due to the elimination of school-based graduation activities, or developing independence after a distance learning experience due to required personal responsibility, could be seen. They used a variety of coping strategies, for example confrontive coping, distancing, seeking social support or escape-avoidance. Full article
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23 pages, 632 KiB  
Review
Advancing and Mobilizing Knowledge about Youth-Initiated Mentoring through Community-Based Participatory Research: A Scoping Review
by Ben Dantzer and Nancy E. Perry
Youth 2022, 2(4), 587-609; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040042 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The core purpose of Youth-Initiated Mentoring (YIM) is to adopt a more collaborative approach to mentoring by inviting youth to nominate and select their own mentors. This article performs a scoping review of research on YIM to identify common methodologies and emerging evidence [...] Read more.
The core purpose of Youth-Initiated Mentoring (YIM) is to adopt a more collaborative approach to mentoring by inviting youth to nominate and select their own mentors. This article performs a scoping review of research on YIM to identify common methodologies and emerging evidence from available studies. Six online research databases were used to identify peer-reviewed academic articles published in English. No date restrictions were applied. In total, nine peer-reviewed articles were identified and reviewed. The main findings from these studies indicate that collaborating with youth during the mentor nomination process offers several benefits to youth in mentoring relationships. Based on the knowledge gained from this scoping review, a secondary purpose of this article is to encourage researchers to adopt a more participatory approach to their future investigations of YIM. Despite YIM’s recent exploration into more collaborative approaches to practice, the model has yet to fully embrace more collaborative approaches to research. To address this limitation, this article begins a productive dialogue between YIM and Community-Based Participatory Research. Specifically, this article reviews four of the principles within Community-Based Participatory Research and surfaces helpful strategies that researchers can use to begin celebrating the local knowledge and expertise of youth and their communities. Full article
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17 pages, 618 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of the Relationship between Social Support and Binge Drinking among Adolescents and Emerging Adults
by Eva Villar, Zeltia Martínez-López, M. Emma Mayo, Teresa Braña, Mauro Rodríguez and Carolina Tinajero
Youth 2022, 2(4), 570-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040041 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Binge drinking (BD) is a high-risk pattern of alcohol consumption that is remarkably prevalent among teenagers and emerging adults. This pattern is thought to alter social networks, affecting access to social support (SS), which is considered essential for adjustment during transitional periods and [...] Read more.
Binge drinking (BD) is a high-risk pattern of alcohol consumption that is remarkably prevalent among teenagers and emerging adults. This pattern is thought to alter social networks, affecting access to social support (SS), which is considered essential for adjustment during transitional periods and may in turn play a proactive role against risk behaviors. In this review, we aim to synthesize the available data on the relationship between BD and SS in teenagers and emerging adults. Therefore, a search on three electronic databases was conducted (Web of Science, PsycInfo and PubMed). Articles were screened using eligibility criteria in line with the investigation question and the methodological quality of the studies were reported. Data were analyzed using a narrative synthesis approach. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggested that SS is associated with the onset, frequency, and intensity of BD; this relation varies with age, gender, and source of support (family or peers). From developmental and socio-cognitive points of view, the following conclusions were reached: (a) effects beyond the detrimental consequences of BD must be considered in order to interpret the data, and (b) social support should be taken into consideration in intervention strategies. Full article
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14 pages, 2021 KiB  
Article
Addressing Hostile Attitudes in and through Education—Transformative Ideas from Finnish Youth
by Saija Benjamin, Pia Koirikivi, Liam Francis Gearon and Arniika Kuusisto
Youth 2022, 2(4), 556-569; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040040 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Amid global disturbances, the calls for educational institutions to promote peace and counter hostility intensify. However, policymakers and other adults typically draft the various programs developed for schools to pursue this mission. While young people have valuable insights into the realities and issues [...] Read more.
Amid global disturbances, the calls for educational institutions to promote peace and counter hostility intensify. However, policymakers and other adults typically draft the various programs developed for schools to pursue this mission. While young people have valuable insights into the realities and issues around them, their ideas are rarely solicited in this respect. This study contributes towards filling this gap by bringing insights from Finnish youth on how to address hostile attitudes and foster the development of more peaceful futures in and through education. The data were gathered through an online survey sent to students in upper-secondary education (16- to 20-year-olds) in Finland. The survey included an open-ended question on how schools could address hostile attitudes. In total, 2744 students answered this question, and their responses composed the data of this study. Through qualitative analysis, we found that their suggestions concerned both the academic and social dimensions of school education in addressing hostile attitudes. The students highlighted that to change people’s attitudes and beliefs, they need to know more, and most importantly, they need to know differently. They proposed self-reflection and dialogue as pedagogical tools for the critical examination of one’s taken-for-granted assumptions. The students’ ideas align well with the tenets of transformative learning, which could be valuable in developing educational approaches for more peaceful societies. Full article
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18 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
What Young People Want from Clinicians: Youth-Informed Clinical Practice in Mental Health Care
by Jessica Stubbing and Kerry Gibson
Youth 2022, 2(4), 538-555; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040039 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5162
Abstract
Evidence from around the world consistently indicates young people experience high rates of mental ill-health, but frequently have limited engagement with treatment. One powerful influence on young people’s engagement with mental health care is their relationships with treatment providers. A strong relationship with [...] Read more.
Evidence from around the world consistently indicates young people experience high rates of mental ill-health, but frequently have limited engagement with treatment. One powerful influence on young people’s engagement with mental health care is their relationships with treatment providers. A strong relationship with clinicians may be key to sustaining engagement, reducing dropout rates, and improving outcomes from treatment. However, research into young people’s perspectives on qualities they value in their clinicians has often been limited by traditional methodologies which explore young people’s attitudes to clinicians they have already worked with. This limits young people’s responses and, therefore, our understanding of who an effective ‘youth mental health clinician’ could be. In this study, 94 young people from New Zealand participated in innovative research workshops in which they described their ideal mental health clinician. Thematic analysis identified five themes which summarized these young peoples’ priorities for an ideal mental health clinician: Someone Like Me, Someone I Connect With, Someone Who Protects My Space, Someone Who Treats Me as an Equal, and Someone Who Works in the Right Way for Me. The presence and demonstration of these qualities may support both initial and sustained engagement with treatment, with the potential to improve outcomes for young people. Importantly, the connections between these themes highlight that young people are less likely to value ‘relatability’ as an isolated quality in their clinicians and most desire to work with clinicians who balance a warm and comfortable personal style with professional expertise and boundaries. These findings provide guidance for clinicians from a range of orientations who wish to work effectively with young people as to how they can adapt their approaches and seek feedback to improve their work with young people. Full article
12 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO): Preliminary Results from a Study among Norwegian Youths
by Silje Sommer Hukkelberg and Rebecca Ervik-Jeannin
Youth 2022, 2(4), 526-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040038 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO) is a comprehensive and evidence-based program focusing on youths with serious problem behaviors and their families. The program was developed in the US, and studies indicate that TFCO is an effective treatment program for youths with serious behavioral [...] Read more.
Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO) is a comprehensive and evidence-based program focusing on youths with serious problem behaviors and their families. The program was developed in the US, and studies indicate that TFCO is an effective treatment program for youths with serious behavioral and emotional problems. The present study aimed to examine treatment changes in behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of 76 Norwegian youths (57.9% boys, mean age = 14.93) who were assigned to TFCO. Data were retrieved from the Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) system, used to ensure the program’s national quality, and included measures of risk factors (YLS/CMI), internalizing and externalizing behaviors (ASEBA), in addition to five nationally defined outcome goals. The study included data from intake and the end of treatment. The results showed significant reductions in risk factors and externalizing and internalizing problems. The number of youths who completed all five outcome goals increased over the course of therapy. The results suggest that TFCO might be an effective treatment program for Norwegian youths with severe problem behaviors. Full article
11 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Intergenerational Inequality in Policymaking and Possible Responses: The Case of Australia
by Veronica Coram
Youth 2022, 2(4), 515-525; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040037 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Evidence suggests that, on average, younger citizens in advanced industrial democracies tend to have different policy preferences to those aged 65 and over. Population ageing and relatively lower levels of electoral participation among young people amplify the political voice of older citizens and [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that, on average, younger citizens in advanced industrial democracies tend to have different policy preferences to those aged 65 and over. Population ageing and relatively lower levels of electoral participation among young people amplify the political voice of older citizens and contribute to policymakers being more responsive to their preferences. This paper presents qualitative evidence on whether young adults and older Australians recognise a need to increase young people’s influence on policymaking in the context of intergenerational inequality. The paper considers possible responses to this need, such as voting age reform. Results indicate that there is reasonable support, including from the older participants, to enhance young people’s political voice and influence over policymaking. Growing awareness of intergenerational inequality in ageing democracies may make public opinion more favourable towards voting age reform and other measures to increase the political voice of young people. Full article
10 pages, 223 KiB  
Opinion
Curriculum Proposal for Social Justice Education: A Case Study within High School and College in Japan
by Reina Ozeki-Hayashi, Eisuke Nakazawa and Akira Akabayashi
Youth 2022, 2(4), 505-514; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040036 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1757
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the socially vulnerable were placed in an even more difficult position. High school and college liberal arts education on social justice is needed to address the possible emerging and re-emerging infectious disease pandemics. A desirable educational curriculum to actualize [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the socially vulnerable were placed in an even more difficult position. High school and college liberal arts education on social justice is needed to address the possible emerging and re-emerging infectious disease pandemics. A desirable educational curriculum to actualize this should include (1) Basic Theory of Ethics and Social Justice—justice and goodness, justice in Ancient Greece, deontology, utilitarianism, and the principle of inequality—, (2) Social Justice Theories—liberal egalitarianism, communitarianism, and social structural approach, (3) Psychology and Behavioral Economics—social intuitionist model, implicit association test, and nudge—, and (4) Advocacy—racism and xenophobia, elderly, disabilities, women, gender and justice—. The curriculum on social justice aims to help students understand the value of social justice, recognize inequality and disparity in society, and acquire the ability to address the widening social gap and inequality. The concept of justice is internationally diverse. Thus, extracting “social justice” in the context of each country’s culture and adding it to the social justice education curriculum is important. Full article
26 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
Beyond ‘Voice’ to ‘Learning with’: A Multiple Streams Policy Analysis and Qualitative Exploration Problematizing Representations of Young LGBT+ Identities
by Nerilee Ceatha, Ayrton Kelly, Tara Killeen, Katie McCabe, James Murray, Jayson Pope, Niamh Scully and Conor Buggy
Youth 2022, 2(4), 479-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040035 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3480
Abstract
Hearing young voices is of paramount importance, particularly as some voices are seldom-heard, including those of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT+) youth. Recent research highlighting mental health disparities for these populations led to the formation of the Irish LGBTI+ National Youth Strategy, [...] Read more.
Hearing young voices is of paramount importance, particularly as some voices are seldom-heard, including those of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT+) youth. Recent research highlighting mental health disparities for these populations led to the formation of the Irish LGBTI+ National Youth Strategy, which prioritized youth participation through a Youth Advisory Group (YAG). A policy analysis of the initiation of the Strategy outlines the convergence of problems, policies and politics using a Multiple Streams Approach (MSA), with quantitative literature suggesting substantial vulnerabilities. This is enhanced through qualitative exploration of the views of six youth co-authors, with experiential expertise, and as YAG members. A university ethics committee granted approval for online recorded consultations via group, pair and individual interviews. The theme of ‘seen and heard’ highlighted unprompted discussions on discursive assumptions representing young LGBT+ identities almost solely in relation to mental health risk. These rich narratives problematize the (in)visibility and silence in representations of the diversity of LGBT+ youth identities, which may inadvertently reinforce stigma. This underscores the need for comprehensive and inclusive school curricula. While MSA may explain prioritization for policy initiation, participation potentially disrupts unintended negative consequences. This article concludes by emphasizing how ‘learning with’ LGBT+ young people can ensure research, policy and practice speaks directly to youth interests and concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LGBTIQ+ Youth: Experiences, Needs, and Aspirations)
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10 pages, 231 KiB  
Article
Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing Services: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Correlates of Utilisation among Young People in the Tema Metropolis, Ghana
by Emmanuel Anongeba Anaba, Zita Buabeng and Grace Adjei Okai
Youth 2022, 2(4), 469-478; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040034 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VHCT) is a successful intervention for fostering early HIV detection, which is essential for the management of the disease. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors that influence the utilization of VHCT services among young people. [...] Read more.
Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VHCT) is a successful intervention for fostering early HIV detection, which is essential for the management of the disease. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors that influence the utilization of VHCT services among young people. In this study, young people in the Tema Metropolis were cross-sectionally surveyed. The simple random sampling method was used to select the participants. The majority (60%) of the participants were unaware of VHCT, and 83% did not know of any VHCT centre. The majority (72%) of the participants indicated that VHCT was important, and 81% were willing to test for HIV if VHCT services were available in schools. Young people who knew that parental consent was not a requirement during VHCT were about two times more likely to have been tested for HIV (COR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.05–3.63) compared to their counterparts. Additionally, young people who were willing to test in youth-friendly clinics (AOR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.09–7.51) had higher odds of testing for HIV compared to their counterparts. The utilisation of VHCT services among young people in Tema was found to be very low. Additionally, young people’s knowledge of VHCT services was below expectations. Full article
12 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Sense of School Belonging: The Illusion of a School-Size Effect
by Franck Petrucci, Jenny Marcionetti and Luciana Castelli
Youth 2022, 2(4), 457-468; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040033 - 02 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
Over the past thirty years, the sense of school belonging received increasing attention in the educational field because of the many developmental and educational advantages associated with it. Previous research suggested that small schools are in a better position to create a strong [...] Read more.
Over the past thirty years, the sense of school belonging received increasing attention in the educational field because of the many developmental and educational advantages associated with it. Previous research suggested that small schools are in a better position to create a strong sense of belonging among students. The aim of our study was to test the effect of school size on students’ sense of school belonging and to test whether this effect holds after considering the effect of the classroom after controlling for individual differences. The study was conducted on a sample of 1698 sixth- and seventh-grade students distributed among 20 school institutes in Switzerland. Multilevel analyses have been conducted. While first results showed an effect of the school size on the sense of school belonging, a comparison of the two-level and three-level hierarchical linear models showed that this effect is no longer significant when considering the intermediate level of the classroom in the analysis, indicating that previous research may have overestimated the effect of school size on the sense of school belonging. These evidence raises the question of which levels of the school environment are more relevant to better understanding individual differences in the sense of school belonging. Full article
16 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
South African Youth and the Labor Market
by Philipp Öhlmann
Youth 2022, 2(4), 441-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040032 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2045
Abstract
South Africa continues to be marked by high youth unemployment. This paper investigates youth labor market perspectives in northern South Africa in the light of data from the Livelihoods, Religion and Youth Survey. In addition to standard explanatory variabless of labor market outcomes, [...] Read more.
South Africa continues to be marked by high youth unemployment. This paper investigates youth labor market perspectives in northern South Africa in the light of data from the Livelihoods, Religion and Youth Survey. In addition to standard explanatory variabless of labor market outcomes, it explores whether the ‘soft’ factors of social capital and religion might contribute to youth’s labor market success. Methodologically, the study draws on descriptive statistics and the estimation of linear probability models. The results indicate that religious social capital goes along with improved labor market success, while there is no indication in the data that (non-religious) social capital or religiosity are positively correlated with labor market performance among the youth in the sample. The social capital created in religious communities seems to contribute to youth labor market success. Further research should investigate how these structures can serve as models for the improvement of government interventions aiming at improving youth labor market outcomes. Moreover, the results are in line with the findings of previous research on spatial mismatches in the labor market and highlight the need for job creation, particularly in rural areas. Full article
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