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Knowledge, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 9 articles

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15 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Forecasting Honesty: An Investigation of the Middle Eastern Bicultural Mind
by Maura A. E. Pilotti and Khadija El Alaoui
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 113-127; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010009 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
The present study examines the extent to which models of honesty predict the magnitude of current or future self-serving assessment of performance in Middle Eastern students, a population often neglected in the extant literature. Specifically, the study asks whether Middle Eastern students’ predictions [...] Read more.
The present study examines the extent to which models of honesty predict the magnitude of current or future self-serving assessment of performance in Middle Eastern students, a population often neglected in the extant literature. Specifically, the study asks whether Middle Eastern students’ predictions regarding future performance rectify prior self-serving inflated assessment, thereby restoring honesty, or glorify it through enhanced optimism, thereby discounting prior dishonesty. In this study, students believed that their self-assessment of performance would be either anonymous, allowing them to cheat, or identifiable. Before self-assessment, participants were exposed to reminders of honesty or dishonesty (i.e., priming conditions) or neutral reminders (i.e., the control condition). In agreement with the self-concept maintenance model and evidence of earlier studies conducted in the Western world, students inflated their self-assessments very little, and even less when presented with either secular or religious reminders of honesty. However, reminders were ineffective on participants’ predictions of future performance, which were biased in favor of optimism. The study offers concrete evidence on the presumed generality of a theoretical model of ethical conduct while it also adds evidence on its limitations. Full article
16 pages, 4966 KiB  
Article
Interdisciplinary Analysis of Science Communication on Social Media during the COVID-19 Crisis
by Thomas Mandl, Sylvia Jaki, Hannah Mitera and Franziska Schmidt
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 97-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010008 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3486
Abstract
In times of crisis, science communication needs to be accessible and convincing. In order to understand whether these two criteria apply to concrete science communication formats, it is not enough to merely study the communication product. Instead, the recipient’s perspective also needs to [...] Read more.
In times of crisis, science communication needs to be accessible and convincing. In order to understand whether these two criteria apply to concrete science communication formats, it is not enough to merely study the communication product. Instead, the recipient’s perspective also needs to be taken into account. What do recipients value in popular science communication formats concerning COVID-19? What do they criticize? What elements in the formats do they pay attention to? These questions can be answered by reception studies, for example, by analyzing the reactions and comments of social media users. This is particularly relevant since scientific information was increasingly disseminated over social media channels during the COVID-19 crisis. This interdisciplinary study, therefore, focuses both on science communication strategies in media formats and the related comments on social media. First, we selected science communication channels on YouTube and performed a qualitative multi-modal analysis. Second, the comments responding to science communication content online were analyzed by identifying Twitter users who are doctors, researchers, science communicators and those who represent research institutes and then, subsequently, performing topic modeling on the textual data. The main goal was to find topics that directly related to science communication strategies. The qualitative video analysis revealed, for example, a range of strategies for accessible communication and maintaining transparency about scientific insecurities. The quantitative Twitter analysis showed that few tweets commented on aspects of the communication strategies. These were mainly positive while the sentiment in the overall collection was less positive. We downloaded and processed replies for 20 months, starting at the beginning of the pandemic, which resulted in a collection of approximately one million tweets from the German science communication market. Full article
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17 pages, 1752 KiB  
Review
Supply Chain Disruption versus Optimization: A Review on Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain
by Mohammad Abul Kashem, Mohammad Shamsuddoha, Tasnuba Nasir and Asma Akter Chowdhury
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 80-96; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010007 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 9044
Abstract
In response to significant disruption, supply chain optimization became sensitive to increasing consumer expectations, unexpected demand fluctuation, and inventory costs. Proactive movement, understanding, and empowerment have fostered the beneficial results of supply chain optimization, cooperation, and operational resilience. These pioneering activities are critical [...] Read more.
In response to significant disruption, supply chain optimization became sensitive to increasing consumer expectations, unexpected demand fluctuation, and inventory costs. Proactive movement, understanding, and empowerment have fostered the beneficial results of supply chain optimization, cooperation, and operational resilience. These pioneering activities are critical to achieving a paradigm shift in the supply chain, even agility in response to changing demand. However, sophisticated analytics such as artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain are supposed to overcome these challenges to make smarter decisions on a daily basis. Due to these facts, this study aimed to model AI’s and blockchain’s role in supply chain optimization by conducting a systematic literature review based on the idealized framework of Rejeb et al. (2022) and the SALSA mechanism. In addition, this paradigm-shifting approach will provide fairer views and options for managing forecasting, planning, monitoring, and reporting across the entire supply chain. The emphasis remains on real-time accuracy, easy access, and optimization of operational indicators such as sales, visibility, and end-to-end supply chain operations at all times and from any location. It will be an eye-opening experience to enable stakeholders and partners to communicate information collaboratively, consistently, and efficiently. Full article
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10 pages, 1460 KiB  
Article
The Students’ Representative Processes in Solving Mathematical Word Problems
by Nasrun, Rully Charitas Indra Prahmana and Irwan Akib
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 70-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010006 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2931
Abstract
Representation in mathematics is essential as a basis for students to be able to understand and apply mathematical ideas. This study aims to describe how students produce different representations in solving word problems. In solving word problems, students make verbal–written representations, image representations, [...] Read more.
Representation in mathematics is essential as a basis for students to be able to understand and apply mathematical ideas. This study aims to describe how students produce different representations in solving word problems. In solving word problems, students make verbal–written representations, image representations, and symbol representations. This research uses a qualitative descriptive study involving 75 fifth-grade students at one of the private schools in Makassar, Indonesia. Setting and Participants: two subjects were chosen from 75 participants based on the completion of word problems that resulted in different representations, including verbal–written representations, picture representations, and symbol representations. The instruments used were word problems and interview sheets, although some other students only used one or two forms of mathematical representation. The results of this study indicate that, from the different representations produced that include verbal–written representations, image representations, and symbol representations, students carry out the process of translation, integration, solution, and evaluation until finding answers. In addition, other findings were students’ ‘mathematical literacy which immensely helped the students’ representation process in solving word problems. three forms of representation were found to be produced by students: verbal–written, image representation, and symbol representation. Furthermore, the three forms of representation were created through carrying out four representation processes, namely the processes of translation, integration, solution, and evaluation. Full article
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2 pages, 232 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Knowledge in 2022
by Knowledge Editorial Office
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 68-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010005 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1614
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
15 pages, 834 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pedagogical Agents on Learners’ Knowledge Acquisition and Motivation in Digital Learning Environments
by Ines Zeitlhofer, Joerg Zumbach and Verena Aigner
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 53-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010004 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
We assume that learners generate self-reference to a topic dealt with in class through motivational prompts of a pedagogical agent (PA). This assumption is based on self-determination theory and organismic integration theory. Consequently, learners are more motivated and achieve better learning results. We [...] Read more.
We assume that learners generate self-reference to a topic dealt with in class through motivational prompts of a pedagogical agent (PA). This assumption is based on self-determination theory and organismic integration theory. Consequently, learners are more motivated and achieve better learning results. We examined the influence of motivational prompts on learning success and motivation in a digital learning environment. Therefore, we implemented a PA within a web-based learning environment in order to scaffold learners’ autonomous motivation. In an experimental pre-post design (n = 60), learning success and motivation were analyzed comparing learning environments with and without PA/prompting. Results suggest that learners with a PA reach a higher level of knowledge than learners without a PA. There was no significant influence of motivational prompts on motivation itself. The limitations and conclusions of this study are discussed. Full article
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13 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method in the Field of University Education: Application to a Course on Energy Markets
by Manuel Alcázar-Ortega, Lina Montuori, Javier Rodríguez-García and Carlos Vargas-Salgado
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 40-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010003 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
The Bologna Plan adopted by European universities ended the hegemony of an evaluation system exclusively based on the performance of traditional examinations. In this area, with a view to revitalizing grading models in university education, a wide range of evaluation mechanisms has been [...] Read more.
The Bologna Plan adopted by European universities ended the hegemony of an evaluation system exclusively based on the performance of traditional examinations. In this area, with a view to revitalizing grading models in university education, a wide range of evaluation mechanisms has been developed in recent years. Using them, teachers may evaluate the learning levels of their students, including both the specific competences of the taught subject and the transversal competences that help students further develop their professional careers. This article presents a methodology based on a multi-criteria procedure through which students could be evaluated from different points of view, based on different types of evaluation mechanisms that are diversely weighted. Therefore, their levels of learning could be assessed more objectively. This article shows a practical case of applying this methodology, which has been used for the last five years in a course on energy markets taught as part of the Degree in Energy Engineering at the UPV. Full article
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22 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Managing Knowledge in Romanian KIBS during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Alexandra Zbuchea, Elena Dinu, Andra-Nicoleta Iliescu, Roxana-Maria Stăneiu and Bianca-Roxana Salageanu (Șoldan)
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 18-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010002 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2472
Abstract
KIBS are increasingly important organizations for ensuring sustainable development. Their core asset is knowledge, manifested in many ways and managed in a complex manner, sometimes jointly with clients. Like other organizations, KIBS companies have been greatly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. At the [...] Read more.
KIBS are increasingly important organizations for ensuring sustainable development. Their core asset is knowledge, manifested in many ways and managed in a complex manner, sometimes jointly with clients. Like other organizations, KIBS companies have been greatly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, they could provide support to their customers to better cope with the challenges associated with the pandemic. Therefore, the present paper investigates how Romanian KIBS coped with the pandemic by developing 16 interviews with key persons from four different organizations, covering a range of specializations (technical, professional, and creative). The purpose of the present study is to identify the challenges for knowledge management caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and how the pandemic influenced knowledge management performance within Romanian KIBS. The investigation reveals that the pandemic was an opportunity for organizational development and adopting more formal knowledge management practices, as well as for developing the digital profile of companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge Management in the Post-pandemic Business Environment)
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17 pages, 6107 KiB  
Review
Catalyst Recycling in the Suzuki Coupling Reaction: Toward a Greener Synthesis in the Pharmaceutical Industry
by Shoma Mukai and Yusuke Yamada
Knowledge 2023, 3(1), 1-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge3010001 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6467
Abstract
The Suzuki coupling is a transition metal-catalyzed, cross-coupling carbon–carbon (C–C) bond forming reaction between organic boron compounds and organic halides. As an operationally simple and versatilely applicable procedure, the Suzuki coupling reaction has found immense applications in drug discovery and development in the [...] Read more.
The Suzuki coupling is a transition metal-catalyzed, cross-coupling carbon–carbon (C–C) bond forming reaction between organic boron compounds and organic halides. As an operationally simple and versatilely applicable procedure, the Suzuki coupling reaction has found immense applications in drug discovery and development in the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, the topic of catalyst recycling has undergone intensive investigations with ever-growing interest in eco-friendly and sustainable synthesis. To recapitulate the latest progress in catalyst recycling in the Suzuki coupling reaction, this invited paper reviews key principles, benefits, challenges, and cutting-edge applications of recyclable catalysts for green synthesis of industrially valuable bioactive molecules. This review paper also discusses how artificial intelligence (AI) could further advance green synthesis of pharmaceutical products. Full article
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