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Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 11 articles

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20 pages, 14160 KiB  
Article
Overview of STEM Science as Process, Method, Material, and Data Named Entities
by Jennifer D’Souza
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 735-754; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040042 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
We are faced with an unprecedented production in scholarly publications worldwide. Stakeholders in the digital libraries posit that the document-based publishing paradigm has reached the limits of adequacy. Instead, structured, machine-interpretable, fine-grained scholarly knowledge publishing as Knowledge Graphs (KG) is strongly advocated. In [...] Read more.
We are faced with an unprecedented production in scholarly publications worldwide. Stakeholders in the digital libraries posit that the document-based publishing paradigm has reached the limits of adequacy. Instead, structured, machine-interpretable, fine-grained scholarly knowledge publishing as Knowledge Graphs (KG) is strongly advocated. In this work, we develop and analyze a large-scale structured dataset of STEM articles across 10 different disciplines, viz. Agriculture, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Earth Science, Engineering, Material Science, Mathematics, and Medicine. Our analysis is defined over a large-scale corpus comprising 60K abstracts structured as four scientific entities process, method, material, and data. Thus, our study presents, for the first time, an analysis of a large-scale multidisciplinary corpus under the construct of four named entity labels that are specifically defined and selected to be domain-independent as opposed to domain-specific. The work is then inadvertently a feasibility test of characterizing multidisciplinary science with domain-independent concepts. Further, to summarize the distinct facets of scientific knowledge per concept per discipline, a set of word cloud visualizations are offered. The STEM-NER-60k corpus, created in this work, comprises over 1 M extracted entities from 60k STEM articles obtained from a major publishing platform and is publicly released. Full article
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16 pages, 1164 KiB  
Article
Technology Transfer Offices and Their Role with Information Mechanisms for Innovation Performance in Firms: The Case of Ghana
by Abdul-Fatahi Abdulai, Lyndon Murphy, Andrew Thomas and Brychan Thomas
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 719-734; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040041 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Research into formal and informal technology transfer between universities and industry in economical developed counties is well-documented. However, such studies are limited in number in developing economies. In the context of developing economies, this study analyses technology transfer offices’ role in university technology [...] Read more.
Research into formal and informal technology transfer between universities and industry in economical developed counties is well-documented. However, such studies are limited in number in developing economies. In the context of developing economies, this study analyses technology transfer offices’ role in university technology transfer to Ghanaian firms. We incorporate informal mechanisms as a moderating variable to explore the role of human interaction in the technology transfer value chain. In a cross-sectional survey in Ghana, using structural equation modelling with 245 firms, our research finds a negative moderating effect of informal mechanisms on the effect of technology transfer offices on innovation performance in firms. The findings are of significance to universities and corporate bodies in economically developing nations such as Ghana. Policies to improve the effect of informal mechanisms of university technology transfer offices are proposed in developing economies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision-Making: Processes and Perspectives)
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17 pages, 2036 KiB  
Article
A Bibliometric Analysis of Knowledge Dynamics in Managerial Decision Making
by Constantin Bratianu and Dan Paiuc
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 702-718; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040040 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present a bibliometric analysis of the literature, focusing on knowledge dynamics in managerial decision making. The motivation of our research is based on the new theory of knowledge fields and knowledge dynamics and its influence on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to present a bibliometric analysis of the literature, focusing on knowledge dynamics in managerial decision making. The motivation of our research is based on the new theory of knowledge fields and knowledge dynamics and its influence on decision making in business and management. The methodology used is based on a bibliometric analysis performed with the specialized software VOSviewer. The analysis graphically presents a series of semantic clusters which show the co-citation distances between different concepts related to the search expressions used like “knowledge dynamics”, “managerial decision”, and “decision making”. As a database, we used the papers published in journals indexed in Web of Science. The outcomes of our analysis are some graphical representations of semantic clusters for the expressions “knowledge dynamics” and “managerial decision making”, and a series of tables with the content analysis of the clusters and some other data concerning publications and authors. The findings demonstrate that there is a consistent link between knowledge dynamics and the managerial decision making process. The contribution of the paper comes from the fact that it is a first bibliometric analysis of the correlations between knowledge dynamics and managerial decision making as reflected in papers indexed in Web of Science. Also, the analysis includes for the first time the topic of entropic knowledge dynamics as reflected in papers indexed in Web of Science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge Management in the Post-pandemic Business Environment)
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20 pages, 5224 KiB  
Article
Multi-Level Decision Support System in Production and Safety Management
by Alessandro Massaro
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 682-701; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040039 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
The proposed paper introduces an innovative approach based on the implementation of a multi-level Decision Support System (DSS) modelling processes in the industry. Specifically, the work discusses a theoretical Process Mining (PM) DSS model gaining digital knowledge by means of logics that are [...] Read more.
The proposed paper introduces an innovative approach based on the implementation of a multi-level Decision Support System (DSS) modelling processes in the industry. Specifically, the work discusses a theoretical Process Mining (PM) DSS model gaining digital knowledge by means of logics that are able to select the best decisions. The PM model is applied to an open dataset simulating a working scenario and defining a possible safety control method based on the risk assessment. The application of the PM model provides automatic alerting conditions based on a threshold of values detected by sensors. Specifically, the PM model is applied to worker security systems characterized by the environment with a risk of emission of smoke and gases. The PM model is improved by Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms by strengthening information through prediction results and improving the risk analysis. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) MultilaLayer Perceptron (MLP) algorithm is adopted for the risk prediction by achieving the good computational performance of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.001. The PM model is first sketched by the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN) method, and successively executed by means of the Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME) open source tool, implementing the process-controlling risks for different working locations. The goal of the paper is to apply the theoretical PM model by means of open source tools by enhancing how the multi-level approach is useful for defining a security procedure to control indoor worker environments. Furthermore, the article describes the key variables able to control production and worker safety for different industry sectors. The presented DSS PM model also can be applied to industry processes focused on production quality. Full article
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19 pages, 3227 KiB  
Article
Digital Images to the Rescue of Academics as Knowledge Resources for Educating Curriculum Studies Students
by Simon Bhekumuzi Khoza
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 663-681; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040038 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Educating is an action of using knowledge to assist students to address their real-world personal needs, generating unique personal skills and values. Digital images, as images that consist of picture elements, have become important resources for sustaining education. A cause of concern is [...] Read more.
Educating is an action of using knowledge to assist students to address their real-world personal needs, generating unique personal skills and values. Digital images, as images that consist of picture elements, have become important resources for sustaining education. A cause of concern is that academics use such images to drive learning for sustainability. The intention is to motivate students thereby, thus enhancing their education. In the process, students must comprehend their unique internal intelligence. As such, this study explores the academics’ usage of digital images to educate curriculum studies students at a university in South Africa. Ten academics were purposively and conveniently sampled for this study. Online reflective activities, focus-group discussions, observations, and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. A pragmatic paradigm with participatory action research, content analysis, and a natural identity framework were used to frame this study. The findings reveal that academics were able to educate students to understand both large and small pictures of the digital images. The large and small pictures represented performance-based and competence-based curricula. However, it was difficult for the students to apply or link what they experienced by way of the digital images to their curriculum studies and real-world problems until the participatory action research was extended from Phase One to Phase Two. Consequently, this study suggests that the reflection stage of participatory action research is the dominant stage of the education process. Reflection supports students in their quest for understanding their internal intelligence, thus naturally addressing their personal, societal, and professional needs. Full article
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11 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Development of Marina Services in the Context of Sustainable Water and Coastal Tourism
by Aelita Skaržauskienė, Daiva Labanauskaitė and Ana Timonina-Mickevičienė
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 652-662; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040037 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
The popularity of water and coastal tourism is steadily increasing. Marinas, an essential part of water tourism activity, are complex organizations with heterogeneous business structures with numerous suppliers of various tourist services. The purpose of this research was to determine the components of [...] Read more.
The popularity of water and coastal tourism is steadily increasing. Marinas, an essential part of water tourism activity, are complex organizations with heterogeneous business structures with numerous suppliers of various tourist services. The purpose of this research was to determine the components of marina services that are relevant for visitors of the marina in the context of sustainable water and coastal tourism. The study’s preliminary results show that the orientation towards sustainable tourism significantly influences the behavior of visitors. Consumers of marina services would like the marinas to offer more services: not only boatyard facilities, but also catering, accommodation services, safe infrastructure for children, additional entertainment, and public events. Full article
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34 pages, 826 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Compliance Management Frameworks: PENELOPE vs. PCL
by Ho-Pun Lam and Mustafa Hashmi
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 618-651; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040036 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Due to pressure from regulatory authorities, the requirement to remain compliant has tremendously increased over the last decade. To support compliance-related activities, a plethora of compliance management frameworks (CMFs), compliance languages and systems have emerged, which is on one hand advantageous, but may [...] Read more.
Due to pressure from regulatory authorities, the requirement to remain compliant has tremendously increased over the last decade. To support compliance-related activities, a plethora of compliance management frameworks (CMFs), compliance languages and systems have emerged, which is on one hand advantageous, but may cause confusion when deciding which CMF can be used to best fulfil the organisation’s internal requirements. This is due to the lack of acceptable compliance tools and methodologies in the compliance domain to uncover and compare the multidimensionality of capability between different frameworks and users’ needs, which give raise to the question of how to formally evaluate a CMF. In this paper, we propose methodologies to formally evaluate CMFs, compliance languages and systems, in particular the underlying formal language of a CMF; and present the formal evaluation of two prominent formal language-based CMFs, namely, PENELOPE and PCL, with a business contract using formal analysis approach. Our evaluations formally validate that the proposed methodologies are instrumental in deciding on the suitability of a CMF when is comes to evaluating the underlying formal logic of the framework to represent different types of norms. Full article
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31 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Knowledge Transfer in Higher Education Institutions Focused on Entrepreneurial Activities of Electronic Instrumentation
by Joaquín Del Río Fernández, Spártacus Gomáriz Castro, Joaquim Olivé i Duran and Antoni Mànuel Làzaro
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 587-617; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040035 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Although society, governments and the business sector are increasingly demanding that Higher Academic Centers translate their innovative potential into products and services that affect society, little is known or done about the entrepreneurial skills that both lecturers and students need in the context [...] Read more.
Although society, governments and the business sector are increasingly demanding that Higher Academic Centers translate their innovative potential into products and services that affect society, little is known or done about the entrepreneurial skills that both lecturers and students need in the context of electronic engineering academic degrees. Inevitably, the fact that some teachers lack certain skill sets will have a negative impact on some students’ professional careers. This article demonstrates a range of initiatives in knowledge transfer which have been carried out over more than 30 years by the university research team making the proposal. Such initiatives have allowed the integration of, not only creative thinking, but also other skills differing from traditional teaching and which can help students to successfully compete for jobs requiring higher qualifications. Following the methodology of a case study within the framework of the Polytechnic University School of Vilanova i la Geltrú (EPSEVG) of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), the novelty of the research lies in its focus on the results obtained. In the 1990s, entrepreneurial initiatives encouraged the creation of reference laboratories and the teaching of innovative subjects in the field of virtual instrumentation. Years later, this teaching activity would be complemented by the launch of lines of research/technology transfer. It should be noted that, in its initial stages, this entrepreneurial trajectory was characterized by limited material and human resources, but thanks to the discovery of little-explored areas of activity (niches), opting for working in cooperation networks (science-technology symbiosis), and the entrepreneurial profile of the members of the research team, it has been possible to gain a space in the research/development of marine technologies in the national and European context, as stated in the text. This empirical research has contributed significantly to shaping a new degree in Marine Sciences and Technologies. Likewise, the results of this study reveal that a significant number of electronic engineering students have acquired entrepreneurial skills by engaging in teaching and research and development activities in different Higher Academic Centers. Full article
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15 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Managerial Control in an Online Constructivist Learning Environment: A Teacher’s Perspective
by Jean-Yves Le Corre and Thierry Burger-Helmchen
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 572-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040034 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
This article presents the lessons learned from an online teaching experience in the field of managerial control. The study aims to identify the determinants which influence collaborative behaviors between students in management studies and more specifically during the construction of performance measures. A [...] Read more.
This article presents the lessons learned from an online teaching experience in the field of managerial control. The study aims to identify the determinants which influence collaborative behaviors between students in management studies and more specifically during the construction of performance measures. A business simulation specifically elaborated for this study is used. The study is conducted through a particular research design consisting of an online learning environment built on constructivist learning principles. The learning environment simulates the different steps of a performance dashboard creation (a set of performance indicators) for a fictitious organization. The study adopts an exploratory sequential design to explore and examine social behaviors during the process of knowledge construction related to performance measures. It contributes to a better understanding of the role of cognitive and behavioral skills in the profession of management accounting and how teachers can incorporate such aspects into their courses. It helps to build awareness among educators about the benefits of using digital learning solutions to help students in accounting and managerial control develop their professional skills most effectively. Full article
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15 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
Connecting Perceived Service Quality, Value and Shopping Behavior: An Analysis on Chinese College Students Traveling Overseas
by Demetrio Panarello and Andrea Gatto
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 557-571; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040033 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
In recent years, tourist destinations around the world have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of Chinese tourists. With a view of understanding the consequences of their shopping activity in terms of behavioral response, this study inspects Chinese college students traveling overseas [...] Read more.
In recent years, tourist destinations around the world have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of Chinese tourists. With a view of understanding the consequences of their shopping activity in terms of behavioral response, this study inspects Chinese college students traveling overseas by analyzing 180 questionnaires. The reasoned action theory is applied to examine the impact of a number of factors influencing shopping behavior. The inquiry at hand makes use of methods, including factor analysis, regression analysis, and moderation analysis, to explore the relationship among perceived service quality, perceived value and shopping behavioral intention of tourists. The results show, inter alia, that service quality is a relevant dimension influencing the likelihood of tourists to share their shopping experience with friends and relatives, encouraging them to shop in the same destination, and to continue to shop in the same destination themselves in the future, regardless of the costs of visiting. Therefore, improving service quality may increase college students’ consumption during travel as well as their word of mouth after returning home. The outcomes of this study may contribute to the existing tourism economics and management scholarship and the tourism industry. Full article
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18 pages, 1659 KiB  
Article
A New Conceptual Framework and Approach to Decision Making in Public Policy
by Francisco Banha, Adão Flores and Luís Serra Coelho
Knowledge 2022, 2(4), 539-556; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2040032 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8115
Abstract
In this conceptual paper, we bring forward a new theoretical proposition in the form of an Integrated Policy-Making Process Framework. This tool arose from the discussion and hypothesis that the main models used to analyse public policies have practical and theoretical limitations and/or [...] Read more.
In this conceptual paper, we bring forward a new theoretical proposition in the form of an Integrated Policy-Making Process Framework. This tool arose from the discussion and hypothesis that the main models used to analyse public policies have practical and theoretical limitations and/or are due for an update, especially when it comes to the study of phenomena with many actors involved, vast legislation, large timeframes, and high degrees of complexity. Our original model encompasses the three fundamental stages of the public policy cycle (agenda; decision making; implementation). Our approach can have a wide spectrum of applications and contribute to the field of knowledge of political sciences. Our proposal of using three frameworks in an integrated way enables researchers and users to gain a holistic vision concerning policy processes, and it offers the possibility to compare and rank categories. The Integrated Policy-Making Process Framework is thus proposed as a new tool to tackle research and studies on decision making in public policies and the policy-making cycle. Full article
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