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Tour. Hosp., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Increased demand by dive tourists for high-quality shipwreck sites requires managers to balance heritage conservation and tourism at these vulnerable sites to ensure quality diving experiences while protecting underwater cultural heritage. Integral to effective management is a comprehensive understanding of wreck diver characteristics, motivations, and attitudes. An international survey of 724 wreck divers gathered demographics, dive experience, motivations to wreck dive and attitudes to underwater cultural heritage protection. Wreck divers are motivated to see historic shipwrecks, artefacts, and marine life. Most of them support management controls to protect underwater cultural heritage. Conceptual models of wreck divers’ motivations and attitudes illustrate nuanced complexities in motivations and attitudes, which can inform management strategies to support operational decisions and destination [...] Read more.
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Article
Expenditure Patterns of Foreign Resident Visitors and Foreign Tourist Visitors at a Day-Trip Nature-Based Destination
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(2), 277-287; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2020017 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
In this study, we examined the difference in expenditure patterns between foreign resident visitors and foreign tourist visitors at a nature-based destination. We also examined the effects of sociodemographic profiles, travel characteristics, and perceived importance on expenditure patterns during off-peak and peak seasons. [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the difference in expenditure patterns between foreign resident visitors and foreign tourist visitors at a nature-based destination. We also examined the effects of sociodemographic profiles, travel characteristics, and perceived importance on expenditure patterns during off-peak and peak seasons. Generally, the results revealed low average daily expenditure compared with other nature-based destinations. Whereas no differences were observed during the off-peak season, the sociodemographic characteristics, travel characteristics, perceived importance, and expenditure pattern differed between foreign resident and foreign tourist visitors during the peak season. These results suggest that patterns of expenditure and perceived importance of foreign visitors are influenced by the seasonality of a nature-based destination. On the other hand, foreign resident visitors and foreign tourist visitors differ in their characteristics, perceived importance of destination attributes, and expenditure patterns, particularly during the peak season. Longer periods of residence in the host country might result in foreign resident visitors becoming local visitors. Our findings contribute to practical knowledge of the segmentation of foreign visitors at nature-based destinations. Full article
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Article
Crowdsourced Geospatial Infrastructure for Coastal Management and Planning for Emerging Post COVID-19 Tourism Demand
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(2), 261-276; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2020016 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
In recent years, the use of crowdsourcing has positively transformed the way geographic information is collected, stored and analyzed. Many countries have promoted and funded research into the potential of using crowdsourcing in various fields of governance. This paper focuses on developing a [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of crowdsourcing has positively transformed the way geographic information is collected, stored and analyzed. Many countries have promoted and funded research into the potential of using crowdsourcing in various fields of governance. This paper focuses on developing a methodology for fast, low-cost and reliable coastal management for touristic purposes in Greece. In particular, a group of a professional surveyor have developed the methodology and trained two volunteers to collect a variety of data points of interest about a public coastal zone, such as the area size of free and unused public space, rocky areas, parking spaces (organized or not), land use types, build up and green areas, municipal lighting, pedestrian crossing points, beach umbrellas, path routes, street furniture, etc. A pilot case study was compiled for a part of the Athenian Riviera to check the methodology. Derived conclusions point out that the developed methodology may be successfully used for managing the 16,000 km length of the coastal zone of Greece for touristic purposes. Considerations for further improvements to the methodology are given. Full article
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Article
The New Responsible Tourism Paradigm: The UNWTO’s Discourse Following the Spread of COVID-19
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(2), 248-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2020015 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
The UNWTO’s discourse has focused on managing the effects of COVID-19 on tourism mobility since the outbreak was taken over by the WHO, as tourism is prominent amongst the hardest hit sectors. Emanating from the UNWTO as one of the dominant stakeholders in [...] Read more.
The UNWTO’s discourse has focused on managing the effects of COVID-19 on tourism mobility since the outbreak was taken over by the WHO, as tourism is prominent amongst the hardest hit sectors. Emanating from the UNWTO as one of the dominant stakeholders in tourism discourse construction, an interesting component is the new meaning attributed to ‘responsible tourism’, which coincides with severe sanitary measures in this moment. Through critical discourse analysis and the theoretical framework offered by Iris Marion Young on responsibility for justice, this article will first demonstrate how the reappropriation of the term is in line with the UNWTO’s neoliberal perspective on tourism. The result is the promotion of sanitary measures for the protection of tourism as a consumer industry, rather than for the protection of the individuals involved. It is also cementing the pedestal on which the UN agency places the tourist-consumer, namely through the International Code for the Protection of Tourists project. This paper closes with thoughts on how the emerging dominant discourse on responsible tourism is internalized by tourism stakeholders as the new normal, which would gain in being explored through the lens of Foucault’s work on the concept of biopolitics and the neoliberal subject. Full article
Article
Training Service Staff to Enhance Non-Verbal Behavioral Skills to Increase Customer Profitability in Tourism
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(2), 233-247; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2020014 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 1409
Abstract
To address the personalization of customer service in four-star hotels in Cuba, this research takes up the precepts of non-verbal communication and Customer Relationship Management. The Systemic Method and its treatment through the Soft Systems Methodology are applied. With information obtained from the [...] Read more.
To address the personalization of customer service in four-star hotels in Cuba, this research takes up the precepts of non-verbal communication and Customer Relationship Management. The Systemic Method and its treatment through the Soft Systems Methodology are applied. With information obtained from the Sol Cayo Guillermo hotel, belonging to the Jardines del Rey tourist center, in Cuba, a grouping of the essential elements in customer satisfaction generated with the use of Computational Intelligence algorithms was used. In the end, we introduce a training program for the personalization of customer service based on the non-verbal communication system to enhance service in four-star hotels in Cuba. As a main result, the experts agree that the proposed training program will have a positive impact on the worker–client communication relationship to increase customer profitability in four-star hotels in Cuba. Full article
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Article
Tourism Endowments, Institution Quality, and Inbound Tourists: A Panel Analysis of ASEAN
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(2), 218-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2020013 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
This study empirically examines the impact of the tourism endowments, institution quality, and its sub-components on inbound tourists in the Association of Southeast Asia Nation (ASEAN) member states using the fixed-effect model and panel data set from 2007–2017. The results show that the [...] Read more.
This study empirically examines the impact of the tourism endowments, institution quality, and its sub-components on inbound tourists in the Association of Southeast Asia Nation (ASEAN) member states using the fixed-effect model and panel data set from 2007–2017. The results show that the tourism endowment index and institution quality are essential factors that encourage inbound tourists to visit individual ASEAN member states. I further examine inbound tourists’ responses to each sub-component of institution quality. I corroborate that most of the sub-components of institution quality play an essential role in promoting inbound tourism in individual ASEAN member states. Other variables, such as China’s GDP per capita, foreign direct investment (FDIs), and single-entry visa schemes, show positive and significant impacts on inbound tourists in individual ASEAN member states. Therefore, these results aid the government and the policymakers in ASEAN member states to provide additional, appropriate tourism strategic development plans and policies. Full article
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Article
Diving Deeper into Wreck Diver Motivations and Attitudes
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(2), 195-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2020012 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Increased demand by dive tourists for high-quality underwater wreck sites requires managers to balance heritage conservation and tourism at these vulnerable sites to ensure quality diving experiences while protecting underwater cultural heritage. Integral to effective management is a comprehensive understanding of wreck diver [...] Read more.
Increased demand by dive tourists for high-quality underwater wreck sites requires managers to balance heritage conservation and tourism at these vulnerable sites to ensure quality diving experiences while protecting underwater cultural heritage. Integral to effective management is a comprehensive understanding of wreck diver characteristics, motivations, and attitudes. This paper reports the outcomes of an international survey of 724 wreck divers including demographics, dive experience, motivations to wreck dive and attitudes to underwater cultural heritage protection. Wreck divers are motivated to see historic shipwrecks, artefacts, and marine life. Most are generally supportive of management controls to protect underwater cultural heritage. Conceptual models of wreck divers’ motivations and attitudes were developed to illustrate nuanced complexities in motivations and attitudes, which can inform management strategies to support operational decisions and destination marketing. Full article
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Perspective
An Employee Sharing Model for the Tourism and Hospitality Industry
Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2(2), 190-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2020011 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Fast technological developments have transformed the tourism and hospitality services and the labor market. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of the tourism and hospitality workforce. There is insufficient prior work about creating better work conditions and greater career opportunities [...] Read more.
Fast technological developments have transformed the tourism and hospitality services and the labor market. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of the tourism and hospitality workforce. There is insufficient prior work about creating better work conditions and greater career opportunities for hospitality and tourism professionals in the swiftly changing labor market. To this end, this article analyzes the historical employee–employer relationships in the tourism and hospitality industry. It presents a new employee-sharing model framework for enhancing resilience and flexibility for hospitality and tourism enterprises and workers. Full article
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