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Vibration, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 5 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Earthquake Rotational Components on the Seismic Safety of Steel Structures
Vibration 2020, 3(1), 42-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration3010005 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 461
Abstract
In this work a seismic analysis of structure associated with the complete description of ground motion components is performed. All earthquake excitation components corresponding to the six degrees of freedom, translational and rotational ones need to be taken into account for a realistic [...] Read more.
In this work a seismic analysis of structure associated with the complete description of ground motion components is performed. All earthquake excitation components corresponding to the six degrees of freedom, translational and rotational ones need to be taken into account for a realistic simulation of structural performance. The impact of the rotational components of an earthquake to the overall response of a steel structure is examined. Typically, in response to the history analyses, the seismic input is descripted by its translational component only, while the rotational components are ignored. This is because the rotational component requires special devices to be recorded in adequate detail. This is one of the reasons why this component is often ignored. With the currently available technology, such an instrument can be constructed and provide detailed records that can be used for the response history analysis of structures. The applicable design codes using a simplified response spectrum analysis accounting for rotational components is proposed and elastic design response spectra are introduced. Another reason why the rotational component was not taken into account in structural analysis is that it does not have significant effect on low-rise buildings. In this work, the analysis results in terms of response and internal forces when accounting for the rotational component is demonstrated. A case study on the response history analysis of symmetrical and non-symmetrical steel structures subjected to earthquake excitation with and without the rotational component of the excitation was performed. Numerical results show that the influence of the rotational component on the structural behaviour is important and should be taken into account in the design process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Incident Acoustic Pressure Amplitude on the Transmission Loss of Helmholtz Resonators
Vibration 2020, 3(1), 34-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration3010004 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Acoustic transmission loss is a common parameter utilized throughout several studies to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a given test element. Transmission loss has been frequently referred to as a source independent parameter. However, this work presents evidence that the incident acoustic pressure [...] Read more.
Acoustic transmission loss is a common parameter utilized throughout several studies to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a given test element. Transmission loss has been frequently referred to as a source independent parameter. However, this work presents evidence that the incident acoustic pressure amplitude does, in fact, have an effect on the measured transmission loss for some passive damping devices. The transmission loss was experimentally measured utilizing the two-source location method and the specimens tested include an expansion chamber, a quarter wave resonator, a Herschel–Quincke tube and various Helmholtz resonators. When varying the power supplied to the acoustic source, it was noted that all the devices exhibited nearly constant values of transmission loss, with the exception of the Helmholtz resonators. The Helmholtz resonators had a significant variance of transmission loss with respect to the acoustic source power. This decrease in performance is caused by the “jet-flow” phenomenon occurring at the Helmholtz resonator neck, which results in increased acoustic losses. The present work illustrates that the assumption of source independence, which is often made when using transmission loss to evaluate damping devices, must be taken with caution, as this assumption is case dependent and may be crucial when scaling experimental studies to an industrial setting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Dynamic Interaction of Railway Pantograph–Catenary Including Reattachment Momentum Impact
Vibration 2020, 3(1), 18-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration3010003 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The pantograph–catenary system is responsible for the electric transmission to the locomotive via the sliding contact between the pantograph head and the contact wire. The separation of the pantograph head from the contact wire is the main source of arcing, which challenges the [...] Read more.
The pantograph–catenary system is responsible for the electric transmission to the locomotive via the sliding contact between the pantograph head and the contact wire. The separation of the pantograph head from the contact wire is the main source of arcing, which challenges the normal operation of an electrified railway. To properly describe the contact loss procedure using simulation tools, a mathematical model of the reattachment momentum impact between the pantograph head and the contact wire is proposed in this paper. The Euler–Bernoulli beam is adopted to model the contact and messenger wires, which are connected by lumped mass-spring droppers. The Lagrange multiplier method is utilised to describe the contact between the pantograph head and the contact wire. The momentum impact generated during the reattachment process is derived based on the principle of momentum conservation. Through several numerical simulations, the contact wire uplift and the contact force are evaluated with the reattachment impact. The analysis result indicated that the velocities of the contact wire and the pantograph head experience a sudden jump at the time instant of reattachment, which leads to a sudden increase of the contact force. When the reattachment impact is included, the maximum value and the standard deviation of contact forces show a significant increase. The effect of reattachment impact is more significant with the increase of the pantograph mass and stiffness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison between Elastic and Viscoelastic Asymmetric Dynamics of Elastically Supported AFG Beams
Vibration 2020, 3(1), 3-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration3010002 - 31 Jan 2020
Viewed by 480
Abstract
This investigation compares the dynamic simulation results of perfect, elastically-supported, axially-functionally-graded (AFG) beams between viscoelastic and elastic models. When modeling and simulating the dynamics of AFG beams, the elastic model is commonly assumed so as to simplify calculations. This investigation shows how the [...] Read more.
This investigation compares the dynamic simulation results of perfect, elastically-supported, axially-functionally-graded (AFG) beams between viscoelastic and elastic models. When modeling and simulating the dynamics of AFG beams, the elastic model is commonly assumed so as to simplify calculations. This investigation shows how the dynamics varies if viscosity is present. The nonlinear continuous/discretized, axial/transverse motion derivation procedure is explained briefly based on Hamilton’s principle for energy/energy-loss, Kelvin–Voigt viscosity, elastic foundation assumption, and exponential functions for material and geometric variations along the axial axis. A comparison between elastic and Kelvin–Voigt viscoelastic AFG beams on an elastic foundation shows that the viscosity influences the asymmetric dynamics of AFG beams; the viscosity effects become more dominant for larger motion amplitudes, for example. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Vibration in 2019
Vibration 2020, 3(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration3010001 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 421
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
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