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Proceedings, Volume 6, IECEHS 2018

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Environmental Health Sciences

Online | 15 November–7 December 2018

Issue Editor: Prof. Jon Øyvind Odland


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Cover Story (view full-size image) The 1st International Electronic Conference on Environmental Health Sciences was an incredible [...] Read more.
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Research

Open AccessProceedings Noise Annoyance in Urban Life: The Citizen as a Key Point of the Directives
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05648
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 113 | PDF Full-text (427 KB)
Abstract
The improvement of the quality of life in the framework of the smart city paradigm cannot be limited to measuring objective environmental factors, but should also consider the assessment of the citizens’ health. Road traffic noise has been widely studied in terms of [...] Read more.
The improvement of the quality of life in the framework of the smart city paradigm cannot be limited to measuring objective environmental factors, but should also consider the assessment of the citizens’ health. Road traffic noise has been widely studied in terms of citizens’ annoyance and its impact on health, but other types of urban noise are usually outside of those analyses. Each node of a wireless acoustic sensor network can pick up street noise and can even record specific sounds that reach a higher equivalent level for study, but the most important thing for administration is whether certain types of noise annoy the citizen. In this work, we present the analysis and the selection of several audio samples collected by a wireless acoustic sensor network in an urban environment in order to conduct perceptive tests by several users. This a first approximation to the evaluation of the real perception of citizens’ annoyance with respect to the urban noise collected by a low-cost wireless acoustic sensor network. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Mediterranean Built Environment and Weather as Modulator Factors on Physical Activity: Cross-Sectional Study
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05649
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 38 | PDF Full-text (1401 KB)
Abstract
Background: When promoting physical activity practice, it is important to consider the plausible environmental determinants that may affect this practice. We aimed to explore the impact of objectively measured Public Open Spaces (POS) on objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and the [...] Read more.
Background: When promoting physical activity practice, it is important to consider the plausible environmental determinants that may affect this practice. We aimed to explore the impact of objectively measured Public Open Spaces (POS) on objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and the influence of weather on this association, in a Mediterranean sample of senior adults with overweight or obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Method: Cross-sectional analyses based on 218 PREDIMED-Plus trial participants aged 55 to 75 years, from Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Indicators of access to POS were assessed in a 1.0 km sausage network walkable buffer around each participant’s residence address using geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of self-reported leisure-time brisk walking, and accelerometer objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in bouts of at least 10 min (OM-MVPA) were measured. To investigate the association between access to POS and physical activity, generalized additive models with Gaussian link function were used. Results: Better access to POS was not statistically significantly associated with self-reported leisure-time brisk walking. A positive significant association was only observed between the distance of healthy routes contained or intersected by buffer and OM-MVPA. This association was only evident on non-rainy days. Conclusions: In this elderly population living in a Mediterranean city, only healthy routes contained or intersected by a 1 km sausage network walkable buffer influenced the accelerometer objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in bouts of at least 10 min and rainy conditions during the accelerometer period appeared to be an important factor related to active ageing. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Risks for Population Health from Atmospheric Air Pollution in the City of Kazan
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05706
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 38 | PDF Full-text (232 KB)
Abstract
The assessment of non-carcinogenic risk for the population health from chemicals coming from exhaust gases of motor transport citywide and in certain districts of the city of Kazan was performed. The calculation was carried out according to the results of the laboratory and [...] Read more.
The assessment of non-carcinogenic risk for the population health from chemicals coming from exhaust gases of motor transport citywide and in certain districts of the city of Kazan was performed. The calculation was carried out according to the results of the laboratory and instrumental tests carried out by “Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Republic of Tatarstan” for the period from 2010 to 2016. The general toxic effect on the organs of the respiratory system from 42.5% to 62.0% in the city and districts is the result of exposure to the total fraction of total dust (TSP), particulate matter (РМ)10, and РМ2.5. Population risk of the total TSP impact made 1244 cases of additional deaths per year among the city population, apart from external causes. In Vakhitovsky and Sovetsky districts, this index for the whole population made 86 and 281 per year, respectively. The absence of data on the age-specific death rate in the districts did not allow for calculating the given indices for certain age groups. Damage associated with total morbidity of asthma among the cumulative city population caused by the exposure to РМ10 made 486 cases in adults and 67 cases in children per year. Damage from the exposure to РМ2.5 made 332 additional deaths from all causes (14.6%), 1727 from cardiovascular diseases (4.5%), and 18 from respiratory diseases (6.0%). Currently, the assessment of mortality and diseases caused by the air pollution is the starting point for development or correction of regulatory actions in the field of the environmental and the population health protection at regional level. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Toxicology Classification of Pool Water Quality in Relation to Selected Pollutant Fractions Present in Washings Samples
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05709
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 71 | PDF Full-text (506 KB)
Abstract
The aim of the study is to determine the fractional share of organic pollutants in washing samples collected after pressure filter washings. The evaluation of the physicochemical and toxicological quality of raw washings, fractions <200 kDa, <30 kDa, and <300 Da, has been [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to determine the fractional share of organic pollutants in washing samples collected after pressure filter washings. The evaluation of the physicochemical and toxicological quality of raw washings, fractions <200 kDa, <30 kDa, and <300 Da, has been presented. Separation of selected fractions was carried out with the participation of a multistage pressure membrane system using ultra- and nanofiltration. The physicochemical analysis was conducted based on the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, dissolved organic carbon, and total carbon. The toxicological classification of isolated fractions was also prepared using the percentage of toxicity effects obtained in commercial bioassays—Microtox® and Artoxkit M. The concentration of TOC in the analyzed samples of the raw washings was ranged from 2.50–11.00 mgC/L. The presented study showed a significant share of the organic pollutants fraction with a molar weight below 300 Da in the examined washings (the TOC was from 0.71 to 1.48 mgC/L). No correlation was observed between the concentration of TOC and the percentage of toxic effect. Screening toxicity tests can be a signal of swimming pool water quality, but they need to be extended with additional test organisms or observations of more morphological parameters of these organisms. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Breast-Feeding Protects Children from Adverse Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05650
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 27 | PDF Full-text (444 KB)
Abstract
In a cross-sectional study on 433 schoolchildren (aged 6–9 years) from nine schools in Austria, we observed associations between housing factors like passive smoking and lung function as well as improved lung function in children who had been breast-fed. The latter findings urged [...] Read more.
In a cross-sectional study on 433 schoolchildren (aged 6–9 years) from nine schools in Austria, we observed associations between housing factors like passive smoking and lung function as well as improved lung function in children who had been breast-fed. The latter findings urged the question whether protective effects of breast-feeding act on environmental stressors or if they act independently. Therefore the effect of passive smoking on lung function was stratified by breast-feeding. Detrimental effects of passive smoking were significant but restricted to the group of 53 children without breast-feeding. Breast feeding counteracts the effect of environmental stressors on the growing respiratory organs. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Public Health Messages Associated with the Low Exposure Category of the UV Index Need Reconsideration
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05711
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 27 | PDF Full-text (213 KB)
Abstract
Overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main modifiable risk factor for skin cancer. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) was introduced as a tool to visualize the intensity of UV radiation on a certain day which should enable and encourage people to [...] Read more.
Overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main modifiable risk factor for skin cancer. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) was introduced as a tool to visualize the intensity of UV radiation on a certain day which should enable and encourage people to take appropriate protective measures. The exposure category ‘low’ of the UVI, including values from 0 to 2, was linked to the health message ‘No protection required’ by the World Health Organization and collaborating centres. However, published evidence corroborating this advice is scarce. Therefore, we analysed ambient erythemal irradiance data of 14,431 daily UVI time series of low UVI days. Data were gathered at nine stations of the German solar UV monitoring networkcovering all major climate areas in Germanyin the years 2007–2016. We compared ambient erythemal doses calculated for various time intervals with average minimal erythemal doses (MEDs) of the Caucasian Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I-IV to assess the potential for skin damage arising from sun exposure on days with low UVI values. The most common months for the occurrence of days with low UVI values in our dataset were January and December, February and November, and March and October for UVI 0, 1 and 2, respectively. Our results indicate that on days with a UVI value of 0, risk of deterministic radiation injury (solar erythema) is negligible. Conversely, the above-mentioned health message appears misleading when melano-compromised individuals spend several hours outdoors on days with a UVI value of 2, as median doses exceed the MEDs of Fitzpatrick skin types I and II after an exposure duration of only 2 h around solar noon. Under very rare specific circumstances, MEDs of those two most sensitive skin types can also be exceeded even on days with UVI 1. Hence, two aspects of current public health messages may need reconsideration: on the one hand, the health message related to an ‘innocuous level’ of the UVI and, on the other hand, a possible adaption of UVI-related health messages to different skin types. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Assessment of Occupational Stress Index and Lipid Profile among Professional Drivers in Ismailia City, Egypt
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05713
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 35 | PDF Full-text (372 KB)
Abstract
Background: Driving is a stressful job. Professional drivers are high risk group for occupational stress. Occupational stress has been associated with abnormal levels of lipids. However, many studies could not find any association. Aim and Objectives: The study aimed at contributing to improving [...] Read more.
Background: Driving is a stressful job. Professional drivers are high risk group for occupational stress. Occupational stress has been associated with abnormal levels of lipids. However, many studies could not find any association. Aim and Objectives: The study aimed at contributing to improving the professional drivers' health through assessing occupational stress, lipid profile and their association. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Suez Canal Authority in Ismailia City, Egypt, including 131 professional drivers. A structured interview questionnaire was used to assess occupational stress index (OSI) and cardiovascular risk factors. Lipid profile in form of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed. Results: The total OSI score was 79.98 ± 6.14. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 79.4%, 51.9% of drivers had hypercholesterolemia, 37.4% had hypertriglyceridemia, 50.4% had high level of LDL-C, and 45% had low level of HDL-C. The total OSI score and OSI aspects did not have statistically significant relationship with dyslipidemia. The high demand aspect score of OSI had statistically significant relationship with hypercholesterolemia. The conflict aspect had statistically significant relationship with high LDL-C. The noxious exposure and conflict aspects of OSI had weak positive significant correlations with cholesterol level (r = 0.163, 0.162 respectively). A weak positive significant correlation (r = 0.149) was found between noxious exposure aspect score and LDL-C level. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess independent risk factors of dyslipidemia. The model included aspects of OSI, total OSI score, driving hours a day, smoking status, passive smoking, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits. It identified conflict aspect of OSI, driving hours a day, and BMI as predictors of dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Professional drivers are exposed to occupational stress, and dyslipidemia is prevalent among them. Total OSI score does not have statistically significant relationship with dyslipidemia. However, certain aspects of OSI have significant relationship with abnormal lipid profile. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Extended-Family Talk about Sex and Teen Sexual Behavior
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05710
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 31 | PDF Full-text (224 KB)
Abstract
Research shows that family sexuality communication is protective for teens’ risky sexual behavior, but most studies on this topic focus exclusively on the parent–teen dyad. The few studies that assessed extended family sexuality communication use a single item to measure this communication and [...] Read more.
Research shows that family sexuality communication is protective for teens’ risky sexual behavior, but most studies on this topic focus exclusively on the parent–teen dyad. The few studies that assessed extended family sexuality communication use a single item to measure this communication and showed mixed results as to whether it is associated with sexual risk behaviors for teens. The current study included cross-sectional survey data from 952 teens in the 11th and 12th grades. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess associations between teens’ sexual risk behaviors and communication with extended family about protection methods, risks of sex and relational approaches to sex. Results showed that, for sexually active teens, talk about protection methods was associated with fewer sexual partners and talk about risks of sex was associated with more sexual partners, even after accounting for talk with parents about sex and controlling for teen gender, racial/ethnic background and mothers’ education. Results suggest that extended family talk with teens about sex might protect them from risky sexual behavior, over and above the effects of teen–parent communication. However, the direction of the effect depends on the content of the conversations. Talk about protection might support teens’ sexual health, while talk about risks of sex with teens who have already had sex, might not be effective. These findings suggest the need to explore whether and how extended family could be included in health prevention and intervention programs, which currently focus on parents. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Risk Assessment of Chemical Contaminants Ingestion with Nutrition of Children Aged 3–6 Years from the City of Kazan
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05707
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 126 | PDF Full-text (246 KB)
Abstract
The analysis of the intake of chemicals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in the diet of children aged 3–6 years from the city of Kazan for the periods 2007–2010 and 2011–2014 was carried out. The study of [...] Read more.
The analysis of the intake of chemicals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in the diet of children aged 3–6 years from the city of Kazan for the periods 2007–2010 and 2011–2014 was carried out. The study of actual child nutrition was performed by questionnaire and time-weight methods. The calculation of daily doses was made with the account of regional exposure factors at the 95th percentile level. The non-carcinogenic risk from the exposure to methylmercury with basic food groups at the level of the 95th perc made 3.89 and 3.33 for both periods, 10.67—for arsenic in the first period, being unacceptable (hazard quotient (HQ) > 1). In 2007–2010, the central nervous system (CNS), the hormone system (HS), the immune system (IS), and the development (hazard index (HI) = 15.75, 12.87, 11.72, and 4.03) were exposed to the highest toxic effect, and in 2011–2014, the CNS and the development (HI = 4.02 and 3.98). The risk of developing non-carcinogenic effects for these systems (64%–91%) was mainly due to contamination of foods with As for the first period, and to the intake of Pb (46%–57%) for the second period. The value of the total individual carcinogenic risk (ICR Cd, Pb, As), for the second period 1.69 × 10 5 corresponded to the maximum allowable level. In 2007–2010, the total ICR was 2.45 × 10 4 which is an unacceptable level for the general population. The major contribution to the total ICR due to the intake of contaminated foods was made by As (92.55%) in the first period, and by Cd (79.93%) in the second period. The peculiarities of the child body (the amount of chemicals ingested per kilogram of body weight is higher in children than in adults) determine the potential risk and are responsible for high vulnerability on exposure to chemicals and the development of adverse effects. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Acute Effects of Air Pollution and Noise from Road Traffic in a Panel of Young Healthy Subjects
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05705
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 53 | PDF Full-text (429 KB)
Abstract
Twenty-four healthy students walked at least four times for 1 hour under each of the four settings: by a busy road; by a busy road wearing ear plugs; in a park; and in a park but exposed to traffic noise (65 dB) through [...] Read more.
Twenty-four healthy students walked at least four times for 1 hour under each of the four settings: by a busy road; by a busy road wearing ear plugs; in a park; and in a park but exposed to traffic noise (65 dB) through speakers. Particle mass (smaller than 2.5 and 1 µm, PM1 and PM2.5, (respectively)particle number and noise levels were measured throughout each walk. Lung function and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) were measured before, immediately after, 1 hour after, and approximately 24 h after each walk. Blood pressure and heart-rate variability were measured every 15 min during each walk. Air pollution levels reduced lung function levels; noise levels reduced systolic blood pressure and heart-rate variability. Full article
Open AccessProceedings Prescribing Pattern of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs and Adherence to JNC VII Guideline
Proceedings 2019, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECEHS-1-05708
Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 40 | PDF Full-text (307 KB)
Abstract
Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health concern because of its associated morbidity, mortality and economic impact on society. It is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. A number of national and international guidelines for the management of hypertension [...] Read more.
Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health concern because of its associated morbidity, mortality and economic impact on society. It is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. A number of national and international guidelines for the management of hypertension have been published. The Joint National Committee (JNC) in 2003 published a series of guidelines to recommend the appropriate antihypertensive therapy based on the best available evidence. Objectives: This drug utilization study was intended to find out the preferred drug group prescribed either alone or in combinations and their adherence to the JNC 7 guidelines. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Drug utilization data on 100 hypertensive patients were collected from various hospitals in Nepal. The patients who received antihypertensive drugs during their treatment period in SPSS V. 16.0. The prescribed drugs were compared with JNC 7 guidelines. Results: It was found that 40% of patients were male and 60% were female. The largest subset of female hypertensive patients (45.0%) were in the age group of >60 years and a plurality of male hypertensive patients (45.0%) were in the age group of 40–60 years. It was found that 45% of the patients had Stage 1 hypertension, 32% of the patients were in prehypertension, 17% of the patients had Stage 2 hypertension. The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drug regimens were angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (32.44%), ARB + thiazide (15.94%), diuretics (11.59%), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) + beta blockers (9.42%) and CCBs (8.7%). Thirty-nine percent received monotherapy while the remaining 61% received combination therapy. Seventy-four percent of the total prescriptions followed JNC 7 guidelines. Conclusion: There is a need to follow official guidelines in managing hypertension as a chronic disease, since these guidelines are based on various clinical trials, and the successful attainment of a target BP in patients will be made much easier by implementing them. National health policymakers should consider the evaluation and treatment of hypertension as a right in the public health system for better outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality from hypertension. Full article
Proceedings EISSN 2504-3900 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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