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Proceedings, 2018, IECG 2018

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Geosciences

Online | 15–30 June 2018

Issue Editor: Jesús Martínez Frías


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This issue of Proceedings gathers the papers presented at the 1st International Electronic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessProceedings
Paving the Road for Sustainability through Global Understanding of Heritage
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05356 - 15 Jun 2018
Viewed by 516
Abstract
The contemporary understanding that heritage comprises the whole bio and geosphere, due to the direct or indirect anthropic impact all over the planet, allows for a global understanding of heritage that pervades all domains of sustainability research. The current debate on the so-called [...] Read more.
The contemporary understanding that heritage comprises the whole bio and geosphere, due to the direct or indirect anthropic impact all over the planet, allows for a global understanding of heritage that pervades all domains of sustainability research. The current debate on the so-called Anthropocene calls for revisiting past strategies of humans-environment disruptive episodes, in order to better understand the global implications of everyday actions and the wider implications of the interactions between technology and sociocultural structure. This paper discusses how low demographic density territories may offer the best examples of integrated responses, engaging geosciences as a backbone for interaction with tourism, technology, or societal strategies. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of Monument Stone Decay by Rainwater: A Case Study of “Basílica da Estrela” Church, Portugal
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05339 - 18 Jun 2018
Viewed by 315
Abstract
An extended version of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of monument stone decay phenomena occurring at “Basilica da Estrela” church, Lisbon, Portugal, is now presented. The PCA rationale and general methodological procedure is presented, as a first step of a stepwise approach to the [...] Read more.
An extended version of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of monument stone decay phenomena occurring at “Basilica da Estrela” church, Lisbon, Portugal, is now presented. The PCA rationale and general methodological procedure is presented, as a first step of a stepwise approach to the eigenvector methods of data analysis. PCA, as others “Eigenvector Methods”, seeks to reveal the underlying structure that might exist within a set of multivariate observations. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and main ionic species were measured on several seepage samples over three years inside the monument. PCA results are discussed in the perspective of a nondestructive tool. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Multi-Cycle Statistical Analysis of Laboratory Salt Weathering Tests
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05338 - 13 Jun 2018
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Soluble salts are an important pollutant and the main decay agent of stone in the built environment. While their end erosive effects are well-established, the evolution in time of those erosive effects has been much less studied. This paper presents multivariate analyses of [...] Read more.
Soluble salts are an important pollutant and the main decay agent of stone in the built environment. While their end erosive effects are well-established, the evolution in time of those erosive effects has been much less studied. This paper presents multivariate analyses of results from salt weathering cycles of three limestone types. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Overview of Radiological Hazards Related to Geological External Gamma Radiation in Outdoor Environments
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05337 - 13 Jun 2018
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Rocks and soils are an important source of external gamma radiation due to their content in U, Th, and K. The dose rate derived from the emission of gamma-rays of radioisotopes can be directly measured or assessed from their content. In the present [...] Read more.
Rocks and soils are an important source of external gamma radiation due to their content in U, Th, and K. The dose rate derived from the emission of gamma-rays of radioisotopes can be directly measured or assessed from their content. In the present study, values of outdoor gamma radiation absorbed dose rate are analyzed to explore the implications of levels related to those values in terms of the exposure time necessary for attaining a certain yearly effective dose. We propose simple relations with the absorbed dose rate and with the gamma index of materials. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
In Defense of Stamp Collecting: The Importance of Case Studies for Geology Teaching
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05340 - 13 Jun 2018
Viewed by 301
Abstract
It is attempted to present here a hopefully illustrative discussion of the use of single images (treated here as stamps representing case studies) in the teaching of diverse geological concepts, based on outcrops and products of anthropogenic activity. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Non-Destructive Photon Activation Analysis in Paleontology
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05347 - 14 Jun 2018
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Paleontological samples are rare and non-renewable, which makes the study of their chemical or physical characteristics require non-destructive methods. Physical characteristics are routinely studied with non-destructive methods; however, chemical studies tend to require destructive methods unless samples are very small or only the [...] Read more.
Paleontological samples are rare and non-renewable, which makes the study of their chemical or physical characteristics require non-destructive methods. Physical characteristics are routinely studied with non-destructive methods; however, chemical studies tend to require destructive methods unless samples are very small or only the surface compositions are of interest. One potential technique for non-destructive elemental analysis is photon activation analysis (PAA). PAA is a versatile, broad-spectrum, multi-element analysis tool with low sensitivities, capable of analyzing large samples without any alteration, preserving the physical characteristics. Recent work has applied PAA to fossils and their source matrices in an attempt to correlate provenance through trace element analysis. PAA was shown to be non-consumptive and able to identify 20+ elements in samples with sub-ppm sensitivities. From that work, several lessons were learned and the non-destructivity of the technique was better characterized. PAA doesn’t have one standardized methodology, as it varies depending on the sample type. As such, from the lessons learned from the previous research, a standard method of applying PAA non-destructively to paleontological samples has been developed and will be presented in the following paper. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Development of the Statistical Model for Monitoring Salinization in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam Using Remote Sensing Data and In-Situ Measurements
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05362 - 18 Jun 2018
Viewed by 369
Abstract
This article presents the methodology for developing a statistical model for monitoring salinity intrusion in the Mekong Delta based on the integration of satellite imagery and in-situ measurements. We used Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat- 8 OLI and TIRS) [...] Read more.
This article presents the methodology for developing a statistical model for monitoring salinity intrusion in the Mekong Delta based on the integration of satellite imagery and in-situ measurements. We used Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat- 8 OLI and TIRS) satellite data to establish the relationship between the planetary reflectance and the ground measured data in the dry season during 2014. The three spectral bands (blue, green, red) and the principal component band were used to obtain the most suitable models. The selected model showed a good correlation with the exponential function of the principal component band and the ground measured data (R2 > 0.8). Simulation of the salinity distribution along the river shows the intrusion of a 4 g/L salt boundary from the estuary to the inner field of more than 50 km. The developed model will be an active contribution, providing managers with adaptation and response solutions suitable for intrusion in the estuary as well as the inner field of the Mekong Delta. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Geological Astroikos
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05335 - 20 Nov 2018
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Establishing a human colony on a planetary body different from the terrestrial one will entail combining those factors that can favour the good development of life in that place. However, which of these possible parameters are essential to the creation of a shelter [...] Read more.
Establishing a human colony on a planetary body different from the terrestrial one will entail combining those factors that can favour the good development of life in that place. However, which of these possible parameters are essential to the creation of a shelter for a long stay? Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements from Aqueous Solutions Using Geopolymers
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05349 - 14 Jun 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
Rare earth elements, i.e., lanthanides, are important components of many recently developed technology applications. However, their increasing use in the industrial sector, medicine, and agriculture over the last few decades has provided them with the title of “new pollutants”. Different methods are now [...] Read more.
Rare earth elements, i.e., lanthanides, are important components of many recently developed technology applications. However, their increasing use in the industrial sector, medicine, and agriculture over the last few decades has provided them with the title of “new pollutants”. Different methods are now applied for the removal of various pollutants from wastewaters, whereby the emphasis is placed on adsorption due to its simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. In the present study, geopolymers prepared from coal ash were examined regarding their capacity for the adsorption of lanthanides from model solutions. The obtained results indicate the efficient removal of lanthanides by prepared geopolymers, depicting them as effective adsorbents for this group of elements. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Proposing Geo-Products for Ly Son Geopark, Vietnam
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05343 - 14 Jun 2018
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Ly Son district includes two off-shore volcanic islands: Ly Son Island (Re Isle) and Little Island (Bo Bai Isle), located in the eastern part of Quang Ngai Province, central Vietnam. It covers approximately 9.97 km2 of land. Ly Son and the surrounding [...] Read more.
Ly Son district includes two off-shore volcanic islands: Ly Son Island (Re Isle) and Little Island (Bo Bai Isle), located in the eastern part of Quang Ngai Province, central Vietnam. It covers approximately 9.97 km2 of land. Ly Son and the surrounding area will be applying to become a UNESCO Global Geopark. The island district is a product of volcanic activity that creates a wide variety of geomorphology forms: modern marine deposition, marine sediment, basalt flow and volcanic eruptions, and other geo-features. As a result of the geosite inventory, together with the assessment of scientific value and additional values (ecology, culture/history, economics, aesthetics), this study was conducted to propose a wide range of geo-products for Ly Son Geopark. The suggested products include: tourist center; scientific interpretation services such as introduction, providing explanations of scientific values of Ly Son Geopark; geo-trails, geo-roads, and geo-adventures; as well as local products. Geo-products will definitely contribute to support local economic development, appealing to tourists and effectively enhancing Earth Sciences education and conservation. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
River Color Monitoring Using Optical Satellite Data
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05336 - 13 Jun 2018
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Knowledge of inland water quality and riverine inputs to oceans is fundamental for water management, environmental monitoring, and the definition of policies and planning strategies related to the sustainable use of rivers. While European Union directives aim at the conservation of inland water [...] Read more.
Knowledge of inland water quality and riverine inputs to oceans is fundamental for water management, environmental monitoring, and the definition of policies and planning strategies related to the sustainable use of rivers. While European Union directives aim at the conservation of inland water resources, the ground operational monitoring network is often inadequate. River monitoring using Remote Sensing may complement in-situ measurements, supplying continuous, spatially explicit representation of parameters related to water quality and solid transport, even if the high-frequency dynamics of water parameters may not be caught due to limited satellite revisit time. Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellites, equipped with MSI and OLI optical sensors whose spectral bands perform a more accurate atmospheric correction, allow for the development of methodologies for monitoring river color from space, thanks to high spatial resolution and short revisit times. This study presents a processing chain, developed to monitor water constituents in rivers using high-resolution satellite images. Multi-temporal analysis of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and total suspended matter (TSM) bio-geophysical variables was performed for the case study of the Po River (Italy) for the year 2017. Quantitative estimations of water constituents were retrieved from Sentinel-2 optical multispectral satellite data using the C2RCC algorithm, and the main outcomes are discussed. The developed processing chain can be used to create operational services for river monitoring, and represent a major improvement in the identification of spatio-temporal dynamics (like solid transport) in riverine systems. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Understanding Satellite Image-Based Green Space Distribution for Setting up Solutions on Effective Urban Environment Management
Proceedings 2018, 2(10), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG_2018-05342 - 14 Jun 2018
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Urban environments are vulnerable, as there is a change in the surface structure of the land cover. Particularly when natural vegetation cover is converted to construction land, which is covered by impervious surfaces, the accumulation of solar energy is increased. This has led [...] Read more.
Urban environments are vulnerable, as there is a change in the surface structure of the land cover. Particularly when natural vegetation cover is converted to construction land, which is covered by impervious surfaces, the accumulation of solar energy is increased. This has led to an increasingly urban environment that is becoming more severe and threatening to affect the quality of life in urban populations. Satellite images are very helpful in determining the distribution of green space. This paper presents the results of analyzing urban land cover for determining green space (GS) distribution for Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). In 2017, the vegetation land of the old 13 urban districts accounts for only one third of the impervious surface. In contrast, in the area of six new urban districts there is a high percentage of urban green space, accounting for nearly twice the proportion of the impervious surface type. This shows that the old inner city area is seriously lacking GS area. Most districts have a very low GS index, less than 10 m2/person, while in some districts it is even less than 3 m2/person. In the eastern part of the city, District 9 has the highest GS index, ensuring a good life quality. Recent research has provided a number of management solutions to improve and develop the GS area, thus enhancing the environment quality and the life quality for the population. Moreover, our research results contribute to the effective urban management of HCMC. Full article
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