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Volume 5, September

Cryptography, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 7 articles

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Article
Contemporary Physical Clone-Resistant Identity for IoTs and Emerging Technologies
Cryptography 2021, 5(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040032 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Internet of things (IoT) technologies have recently gained much interest from numerous industries, where devices, machines, sensors, or simply things are linked with each other over open communication networks. However, such an operation environment brings new security threats and technology challenges in securing [...] Read more.
Internet of things (IoT) technologies have recently gained much interest from numerous industries, where devices, machines, sensors, or simply things are linked with each other over open communication networks. However, such an operation environment brings new security threats and technology challenges in securing and stabilizing such large systems in the IoT world. Device identity in such an environment is an essential security requirement as a secure anchor for most applications towards clone-resistant resilient operational security. This paper analyzes different contemporary authenticated identification techniques and discusses possible future technologies for physically clone-resistant IoT units. Two categories of identification techniques to counteract cloning IoT units are discussed. The first category is inherently cloneable and includes the classical identification mechanisms based on secret and public key cryptography. Such techniques deploy mainly secret keys stored permanently somewhere in the IoT devices as classical means to make units clone-resistant. However, such techniques are inherently cloneable as the manufacturer or device personalizers can clone them by re-using the same secret key (which must be known to somebody) or reveal keys to third parties to create cloned entities. In contrast, the second, more resilient category is inherently unclonable because it deploys unknown and hard to predict born analog modules such as physical unclonable functions (PUFs) or mutated digital modules and so-called secret unknown ciphers (SUCs). Both techniques are DNA-like identities and hard to predict and clone even by the manufacturer itself. Born PUFs were introduced two decades ago; however, PUFs as analog functions failed to serve as practically usable unclonable electronic identities due to being costly, unstable/inconsistent, and non-practical for mass application. To overcome the drawbacks of analog PUFs, SUCs techniques were introduced a decade ago. SUCs, as mutated modules, are highly consistent, being digital modules. However, as self-mutated digital modules, they offer only clone-resistant identities. Therefore, the SUC technique is proposed as a promising clone-resistant technology embedded in emerging IoT units in non-volatile self-reconfiguring devices. The main threats and expected security requirements in the emerging IoT applications are postulated. Finally, the presented techniques are analyzed, classified, and compared considering security, performance, and complexity given future expected IoT security features and requirements. Full article
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Article
Improvements on Making BKW Practical for Solving LWE
Cryptography 2021, 5(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040031 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The learning with errors (LWE) problem is one of the main mathematical foundations of post-quantum cryptography. One of the main groups of algorithms for solving LWE is the Blum–Kalai–Wasserman (BKW) algorithm. This paper presents new improvements of BKW-style algorithms for solving LWE instances. [...] Read more.
The learning with errors (LWE) problem is one of the main mathematical foundations of post-quantum cryptography. One of the main groups of algorithms for solving LWE is the Blum–Kalai–Wasserman (BKW) algorithm. This paper presents new improvements of BKW-style algorithms for solving LWE instances. We target minimum concrete complexity, and we introduce a new reduction step where we partially reduce the last position in an iteration and finish the reduction in the next iteration, allowing non-integer step sizes. We also introduce a new procedure in the secret recovery by mapping the problem to binary problems and applying the fast Walsh Hadamard transform. The complexity of the resulting algorithm compares favorably with all other previous approaches, including lattice sieving. We additionally show the steps of implementing the approach for large LWE problem instances. We provide two implementations of the algorithm, one RAM-based approach that is optimized for speed, and one file-based approach which overcomes RAM limitations by using file-based storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public-Key Cryptography in the Post-quantum Era)
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Article
Investigating Deep Learning Approaches on the Security Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms
Cryptography 2021, 5(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040030 - 24 Oct 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
This paper studies the use of deep learning (DL) models under a known-plaintext scenario. The goal of the models is to predict the secret key of a cipher using DL techniques. We investigate the DL techniques against different ciphers, namely, Simplified Data Encryption [...] Read more.
This paper studies the use of deep learning (DL) models under a known-plaintext scenario. The goal of the models is to predict the secret key of a cipher using DL techniques. We investigate the DL techniques against different ciphers, namely, Simplified Data Encryption Standard (S-DES), Speck, Simeck and Katan. For S-DES, we examine the classification of the full key set, and the results are better than a random guess. However, we found that it is difficult to apply the same classification model beyond 2-round Speck. We also demonstrate that DL models trained under a known-plaintext scenario can successfully recover the random key of S-DES. However, the same method has been less successful when applied to modern ciphers Speck, Simeck, and Katan. The ciphers Simeck and Katan are further investigated using the DL models but with a text-based key. This application found the linear approximations between the plaintext–ciphertext pairs and the text-based key. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryptography: A Cybersecurity Toolkit)
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Article
On General Data Protection Regulation Vulnerabilities and Privacy Issues, for Wearable Devices and Fitness Tracking Applications
Cryptography 2021, 5(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040029 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Individual users’ sensitive information, such as heart rate, calories burned, or even sleep patterns, are casually tracked by smart wearable devices to be further processed or exchanged, utilizing the ubiquitous capabilities of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. This work aims to explore the [...] Read more.
Individual users’ sensitive information, such as heart rate, calories burned, or even sleep patterns, are casually tracked by smart wearable devices to be further processed or exchanged, utilizing the ubiquitous capabilities of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. This work aims to explore the existing literature on various data privacy concerns, posed by the use of wearable devices, and experimentally analyze the data exchanged through mobile applications, in order to identify the underlying privacy and security risks. Emulating a man-in-the-middle attack scenario, five different commercial fitness tracking bands are examined, in order to test and analyze all data transmitted by each vendor’s suggested applications. The amount of personal data collected, processed, and transmitted for advertising purposes was significant and, in some cases, highly affected the network’s total overhead. Some of the applications examined requested access for sensitive data driven device functionalities, such as messaging, phone calling, audio recording, and camera usage, without any clear or specific reason stated by their privacy policy. This paper concludes by listing the most critical aspects in terms of privacy and security concerning some of the most popular commercial fitness tracking applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryptography: A Cybersecurity Toolkit)
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Article
Towards Accurate Run-Time Hardware-Assisted Stealthy Malware Detection: A Lightweight, yet Effective Time Series CNN-Based Approach
Cryptography 2021, 5(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040028 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 524
Abstract
According to recent security analysis reports, malicious software (a.k.a. malware) is rising at an alarming rate in numbers, complexity, and harmful purposes to compromise the security of modern computer systems. Recently, malware detection based on low-level hardware features (e.g., Hardware Performance Counters (HPCs) [...] Read more.
According to recent security analysis reports, malicious software (a.k.a. malware) is rising at an alarming rate in numbers, complexity, and harmful purposes to compromise the security of modern computer systems. Recently, malware detection based on low-level hardware features (e.g., Hardware Performance Counters (HPCs) information) has emerged as an effective alternative solution to address the complexity and performance overheads of traditional software-based detection methods. Hardware-assisted Malware Detection (HMD) techniques depend on standard Machine Learning (ML) classifiers to detect signatures of malicious applications by monitoring built-in HPC registers during execution at run-time. Prior HMD methods though effective have limited their study on detecting malicious applications that are spawned as a separate thread during application execution, hence detecting stealthy malware patterns at run-time remains a critical challenge. Stealthy malware refers to harmful cyber attacks in which malicious code is hidden within benign applications and remains undetected by traditional malware detection approaches. In this paper, we first present a comprehensive review of recent advances in hardware-assisted malware detection studies that have used standard ML techniques to detect the malware signatures. Next, to address the challenge of stealthy malware detection at the processor’s hardware level, we propose StealthMiner, a novel specialized time series machine learning-based approach to accurately detect stealthy malware trace at run-time using branch instructions, the most prominent HPC feature. StealthMiner is based on a lightweight time series Fully Convolutional Neural Network (FCN) model that automatically identifies potentially contaminated samples in HPC-based time series data and utilizes them to accurately recognize the trace of stealthy malware. Our analysis demonstrates that using state-of-the-art ML-based malware detection methods is not effective in detecting stealthy malware samples since the captured HPC data not only represents malware but also carries benign applications’ microarchitectural data. The experimental results demonstrate that with the aid of our novel intelligent approach, stealthy malware can be detected at run-time with 94% detection performance on average with only one HPC feature, outperforming the detection performance of state-of-the-art HMD and general time series classification methods by up to 42% and 36%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cybersecurity, Cryptography, and Machine Learning)
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Article
Parallel Privacy-Preserving Shortest Path Algorithms
Cryptography 2021, 5(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040027 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
In this paper, we propose and present secure multiparty computation (SMC) protocols for single-source shortest distance (SSSD) and all-pairs shortest distance (APSD) in sparse and dense graphs. Our protocols follow the structure of classical algorithms—Bellman–Ford and Dijkstra for SSSD; Johnson, Floyd–Warshall, and transitive [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose and present secure multiparty computation (SMC) protocols for single-source shortest distance (SSSD) and all-pairs shortest distance (APSD) in sparse and dense graphs. Our protocols follow the structure of classical algorithms—Bellman–Ford and Dijkstra for SSSD; Johnson, Floyd–Warshall, and transitive closure for APSD. As the computational platforms offered by SMC protocol sets have performance profiles that differ from typical processors, we had to perform extensive changes to the structure (including their control flow and memory accesses) and the details of these algorithms in order to obtain good performance. We implemented our protocols on top of the secret sharing based protocol set offered by the Sharemind SMC platform, using single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) operations as much as possible to reduce the round complexity. We benchmarked our protocols under several different parameters for network performance and compared our performance figures against each other and with ones reported previously. Full article
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Article
A Fault Attack on the Family of Enocoro Stream Ciphers
Cryptography 2021, 5(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040026 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
A differential fault attack framework for the Enocoro family of stream ciphers is presented. We only require that the attacker can reset the internal state and inject a random byte-fault, in a random register, during a known time period. For a single fault [...] Read more.
A differential fault attack framework for the Enocoro family of stream ciphers is presented. We only require that the attacker can reset the internal state and inject a random byte-fault, in a random register, during a known time period. For a single fault injection, we develop a differential clocking algorithm that computes a set of linear equations in the in- and output differences of the non-linear parts of the cipher and relates them to the differential keystream. The usage of these equations is two-fold. Firstly, one can determine those differentials that can be computed from the faulty keystream, and secondly they help to pin down the actual location and timing of the fault injection. Combining these results, each fault injection gives us information on specific small parts of the internal state. By encoding the information we gain from several fault injections using the weighted Horn clauses, we construct a guessing path that can be used to quickly retrieve the internal state using a suitable heuristic. Finally, we evaluate our framework with the ISO-standardized and CRYPTREC candidate recommended cipher Enocoro-128v2. Simulations show that, on average, the secret key can be retrieved within 20 min on a standard workstation using less than five fault injections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryptography: A Cybersecurity Toolkit)
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