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Safety, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2016) – 7 articles

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Review
A Review on All Terrain Vehicle Safety
Safety 2016, 2(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020015 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2296
Abstract
All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have become increasing popular in many countries around the world, both for occupational use, as well as recreational use. With an increase in popularity, and the supply of heavier and more powerful machines on the market, major traumas and deaths [...] Read more.
All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have become increasing popular in many countries around the world, both for occupational use, as well as recreational use. With an increase in popularity, and the supply of heavier and more powerful machines on the market, major traumas and deaths from ATV use are growing concerns for public health and injury prevention professionals. This review of the literature on ATVs will focus on the mechanism and patterns of ATV-related injuries, the challenges of injury prevention, and the effects of legislation and regulations regarding ATV usage. The increasing burden of injuries and the substantial economic cost from ATV-related traumas and deaths calls for intensification of injury prevention efforts. Modification of risk factors, institution of regulations and legislation, and enforcement of those rules are important steps for prevention of ATV-related harm. Full article
Article
Bicycle-Bicycle Accidents Emerge from Encounters: An Agent-Based Approach
Safety 2016, 2(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020014 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Traditional accident risk prediction models need adequate data on explanatory variables, most importantly data on traffic flows. However, in the case of accidents between bicycles the availability of such data is often limited. Therefore, alternative bottom-up simulation modelling approaches are expected to complement [...] Read more.
Traditional accident risk prediction models need adequate data on explanatory variables, most importantly data on traffic flows. However, in the case of accidents between bicycles the availability of such data is often limited. Therefore, alternative bottom-up simulation modelling approaches are expected to complement traditional equation-based models. In this paper we present an agent-based approach to explore bicycle-bicycle accidents. Specifically, we hypothesise that (1) bicycle-bicycle accidents are based on the population of encounters between cyclists rather than on bicycle flows and (2) that encounters have a non-linear relationship with flows. Bicycle flows and encounters are simulated by means of an agent-based model that is implemented for the road network of the city of Salzburg. Simulation results are tested against a 10-year dataset of police records on bicycle-bicycle accidents. The results affirm both hypotheses: First, cyclist encounters exhibit a linear relationship to accidents and thus suggest being the true population of bicycle-bicycle accidents. Second, flows show a relationship in the form of a second-order polynomial function with encounters as well as accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
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Article
Safety Inspectorates and Safety Performance: A Tentative Analysis for Aviation and Rail in Norway
Safety 2016, 2(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020013 - 05 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Safety inspectorates have been established for all modes of transport in Norway. This paper explores whether establishing a safety inspectorate is related to safety performance. Long-term trends in safety in aviation and rail were compared before and after safety inspectorates were established for [...] Read more.
Safety inspectorates have been established for all modes of transport in Norway. This paper explores whether establishing a safety inspectorate is related to safety performance. Long-term trends in safety in aviation and rail were compared before and after safety inspectorates were established for these modes of transport. In aviation, there have been no passenger fatalities after the safety inspectorate was established. The number of (non-fatal) accidents in scheduled and charter flights has been between zero and five per year, which is higher than predicted according to the long-term trend in the period before the safety inspectorate was created. In rail, both the number of accidents and the number of passenger fatalities have been lower after the creation of the safety inspectorate than predicted according to long-term trends in the before-period. The paper shows statistical relationships indicating that safety performance has improved, at least in rail transport. A causal interpretation of these relationships is not possible on the basis of the analyses in this paper. Establishing safety inspectorates may improve transport safety, but showing this rigorously is extremely difficult. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Road Safety Evaluation)
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Article
Quads, Farmers 50+ Years of Age, and Safety in Australia
Safety 2016, 2(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020012 - 02 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Quads are the leading cause of fatal non-intentional injuries on Australian farms. Due to normal age-related physiological and cognitive changes, farmers 50-years of age and above are at increased risk when using quads. This study identifies a non-statistically significant increasing trend for fatal [...] Read more.
Quads are the leading cause of fatal non-intentional injuries on Australian farms. Due to normal age-related physiological and cognitive changes, farmers 50-years of age and above are at increased risk when using quads. This study identifies a non-statistically significant increasing trend for fatal quad incidents involving this cohort in Australia. It is contended that these vehicles are not “fit-for-purpose” for many typical agricultural tasks more broadly and that the ageing process further exacerbates these risks. Encouraging and promoting the use of more “fit-for-purpose” vehicles in the agricultural sector should be the primary focus of intervention approaches. Supplementing this, other approaches that reduce risks, specifically relating to rollovers, crush/asphyxiation and head injuries must be enacted. Full article
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Article
Sport Cycling Crashes among Males on Public Roads, the Influence of Bunch Riding, Experience and Competitiveness
Safety 2016, 2(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020011 - 06 Apr 2016
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Introduction: Since 2006, the number of seriously injured bicyclists in The Netherlands has increased significantly. This is also the case for sport cyclists. Over 80% of sport cyclists are male. We propose three factors that may contribute to involvement in sport cycling crashes [...] Read more.
Introduction: Since 2006, the number of seriously injured bicyclists in The Netherlands has increased significantly. This is also the case for sport cyclists. Over 80% of sport cyclists are male. We propose three factors that may contribute to involvement in sport cycling crashes among males: Bunch riding (cycling in a group), the inflow of sport cyclists with little experience and a competitive attitude. Methods: Early 2014, a questionnaire was sent to 2625 members of the Dutch Tour Cycling Union to obtain data on involvement in sport cycling crashes in the year 2013 and possible contributing factors (e.g., bunch riding, experience, competitiveness, distance travelled). Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to compare data from male respondents (N = 744). Contrast was made between those who reported involvement in a crash (N = 313) and those who did not (N = 431). Results: Male sport cyclists who are involved in bunch riding and those who are relatively inexperienced (less than three years compared to more than 10 years) have a higher crash involvement (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.79; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.26 – 2.54) and (OR = 2.93; 95% CI = 1.42 – 6.06) regardless of age, annual distance travelled and competitive attitude. Annual distance travelled was not related to crash involvement over the year 2013, indicating that cyclists who travel a longer annual distance have a lower risk (persons involved in at least one crash per km). Conclusions: We recommend that the efficacy of bunch riding training interventions among males is evaluated, with the focus on promoting safety among inexperienced sport cyclists and bunch riding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
Article
Characteristics of Side-by-Side Vehicle Crashes and Related Injuries as Determined Using Newspaper Reports from Nine U.S. States
Safety 2016, 2(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020010 - 05 Apr 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
Side-by-side (SxS) vehicles have become increasingly popular, but there are few reports on injury epidemiology. Newspaper reports of SxS and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes were analyzed for nine U.S. states from 2009 to 2011, including comparisons between the two vehicle types. Seventy-nine SxS [...] Read more.
Side-by-side (SxS) vehicles have become increasingly popular, but there are few reports on injury epidemiology. Newspaper reports of SxS and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes were analyzed for nine U.S. states from 2009 to 2011, including comparisons between the two vehicle types. Seventy-nine SxS crashes involving 104 injured victims were identified; three-fourths were males. There was a relatively high percentage of injured passengers (37%), and a higher proportion of female victims were passengers as compared to males (p = 0.015). Children <16 years of age were 44% of those injured and had the highest proportion of both passenger and operator victims as compared to other age groups. Over half of the crashes occurred on roadways; nearly two-fifths occurred at night. As compared to adults, a lower percentage of crashes involving youth were at night (p = 0.0037) but the percentages on roadways were similar. Only one in five roadway SxS crashes involved a collision with a motorized vehicle. Rollovers were the most common mechanism (50%). Two-thirds of victims were ejected, and one-half were struck or pinned by the vehicle. Twenty-eight deaths (27%) were reported. Although most current SxSs have roll bars, lack of safety belt use has likely reduced their benefit. Children should be prohibited from operating SxSs. Full article
Article
Application of the D3H2 Methodology for the Cost-Effective Design of Dependable Systems
Safety 2016, 2(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020009 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
The use of dedicated components as a means of achieving desirable levels of fault tolerance in a system may result in high costs. A cost effective way of restoring failed functions is to use heterogeneous redundancies: components that, besides performing their primary intended [...] Read more.
The use of dedicated components as a means of achieving desirable levels of fault tolerance in a system may result in high costs. A cost effective way of restoring failed functions is to use heterogeneous redundancies: components that, besides performing their primary intended design function, can also restore compatible functions of other components. In this paper, we apply a novel design methodology called D3H2 (aDaptive Dependable Design for systems with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous redundancies) to assist in the systematic identification of heterogeneous redundancies, the design of hardware/software architectures including fault detection and reconfiguration, and the systematic dependability and cost assessments of the system. D3H2 integrates parameter uncertainty and criticality analyses to model inexact failure data in dependability assessment. The application to a railway case study is presented with a focus on analysing different reconfiguration strategies as well as types and levels of redundancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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