All-Terrain (ATVs, Quad Bikes) and Off-Highway (ROVs, UTVs, SSVs, LSVs, LUVs, MUVs, XUVs) Vehicle Safety

A special issue of Safety (ISSN 2313-576X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2015) | Viewed by 52927

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Guest Editor
Transport and Road Safety (TARS), University of New South Wales, Old Main Building (K15), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: all terrain vehicles; motorcycle safety; road safety barriers; wire-rope barriers; rollover crashworthiness; cycling safety; go-kart safety; FEM crash and impact computer simulations; injury biomechanics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of ATV (Quad Bikes) and off-highway vehicles, such as Side by Side Vehicles (SSV) and Utility Terrain Vehicles (UTVs), both recreationally (ROVs) and in the workplace, continues to be a major contributor to fatal and serious injuries throughout the world. Despite significant attention, little progress has been made in reducing these incidents or their severity, and indeed, trauma related to the use of these vehicles appears to be increasing. In some countries, such as Sweden and parts of the USA, such vehicles are permitted to travel on public roads, further exacerbating the injury problem. This Special Issue will focus on all aspects of safety associated with these vehicle types. Researchers can submit papers dealing with any aspect related to the safety of these vehicles.

Prof. Dr. Raphael Grzebieta
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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827 KiB  
Article
Quads, Farmers 50+ Years of Age, and Safety in Australia
by Tony Lower, Noeline Monaghan and Margaret Rolfe
Safety 2016, 2(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020012 - 2 May 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4045
Abstract
Quads are the leading cause of fatal non-intentional injuries on Australian farms. Due to normal age-related physiological and cognitive changes, farmers 50-years of age and above are at increased risk when using quads. This study identifies a non-statistically significant increasing trend for fatal [...] Read more.
Quads are the leading cause of fatal non-intentional injuries on Australian farms. Due to normal age-related physiological and cognitive changes, farmers 50-years of age and above are at increased risk when using quads. This study identifies a non-statistically significant increasing trend for fatal quad incidents involving this cohort in Australia. It is contended that these vehicles are not “fit-for-purpose” for many typical agricultural tasks more broadly and that the ageing process further exacerbates these risks. Encouraging and promoting the use of more “fit-for-purpose” vehicles in the agricultural sector should be the primary focus of intervention approaches. Supplementing this, other approaches that reduce risks, specifically relating to rollovers, crush/asphyxiation and head injuries must be enacted. Full article
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211 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Side-by-Side Vehicle Crashes and Related Injuries as Determined Using Newspaper Reports from Nine U.S. States
by Charles A. Jennissen, Karisa K. Harland and Gerene M. Denning
Safety 2016, 2(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020010 - 5 Apr 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6559
Abstract
Side-by-side (SxS) vehicles have become increasingly popular, but there are few reports on injury epidemiology. Newspaper reports of SxS and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes were analyzed for nine U.S. states from 2009 to 2011, including comparisons between the two vehicle types. Seventy-nine SxS [...] Read more.
Side-by-side (SxS) vehicles have become increasingly popular, but there are few reports on injury epidemiology. Newspaper reports of SxS and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes were analyzed for nine U.S. states from 2009 to 2011, including comparisons between the two vehicle types. Seventy-nine SxS crashes involving 104 injured victims were identified; three-fourths were males. There was a relatively high percentage of injured passengers (37%), and a higher proportion of female victims were passengers as compared to males (p = 0.015). Children <16 years of age were 44% of those injured and had the highest proportion of both passenger and operator victims as compared to other age groups. Over half of the crashes occurred on roadways; nearly two-fifths occurred at night. As compared to adults, a lower percentage of crashes involving youth were at night (p = 0.0037) but the percentages on roadways were similar. Only one in five roadway SxS crashes involved a collision with a motorized vehicle. Rollovers were the most common mechanism (50%). Two-thirds of victims were ejected, and one-half were struck or pinned by the vehicle. Twenty-eight deaths (27%) were reported. Although most current SxSs have roll bars, lack of safety belt use has likely reduced their benefit. Children should be prohibited from operating SxSs. Full article
1013 KiB  
Article
Potential Benefit of the Quadbar™ on All-Terrain Vehicles
by Melvin L. Myers
Safety 2016, 2(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010005 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4997
Abstract
An epidemic exists related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States and in Australia as well as in other countries. More than 60% of these injuries are associated with ATV overturns. While behavior-related methods have failed to abate [...] Read more.
An epidemic exists related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States and in Australia as well as in other countries. More than 60% of these injuries are associated with ATV overturns. While behavior-related methods have failed to abate this epidemic, engineered interventions have been lacking. However, one technology, the Quadbar™ (QB), shows promise as a crush prevention device for reducing overturn-related injuries and their severity. The question addressed in this study is “What is the potential public health and economic benefit of the QB when used on ATVs?” At 40% effectiveness, our model estimated that 5082 injuries related to ATV overturns would be prevented per 100,000 ATVs equipped with QBs. The overall societal economic benefit was estimated at US$3,943 per ATV that greatly exceeds the QB purchase price of US$478, which represents an 8:1 return on investment. Full article
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955 KiB  
Article
All-Terrain Vehicle Safety―Potential Effectiveness of the Quadbar as a Crush Prevention Device
by Melvin L. Myers
Safety 2016, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010003 - 17 Feb 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5664
Abstract
A total of 10,561 all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related deaths have been documented for the years 1985 through 2009 in the United States, most of which were associated with overturns of the machine. The current analysis addresses the question, “How effective is the Quadbar [...] Read more.
A total of 10,561 all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related deaths have been documented for the years 1985 through 2009 in the United States, most of which were associated with overturns of the machine. The current analysis addresses the question, “How effective is the QuadbarTM (QB) as a crush prevention device (CPD) in preventing ATV overturn-related injuries?” A CPD is designed as a guard against crushing injuries to the ATV rider in the event of an overturn. The analysis used a prevention effectiveness model to address this question. Based on this analysis, the CPD and more specifically the QB were found to potentially prevent serious injuries and death to ATV riders that result from overturns. Systematic real-life studies are needed to evaluate the prevention potential of CPDs that are in use to guide the implementation of policies to better protect the public from these injuries. Full article
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190 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Passengers on All-Terrain Vehicle Crash Mechanisms and Injuries
by Charles A. Jennissen, Karisa K. Harland, Kristel M. Wetjen and Gerene M. Denning
Safety 2016, 2(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2010001 - 20 Jan 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4386
Abstract
Traditional all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for single riders. Although carrying passengers is a known risk factor for injury, how passengers contribute to ATV crashes remains poorly understood. To address this question, we performed a retrospective chart review of ATV crash victims at [...] Read more.
Traditional all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for single riders. Although carrying passengers is a known risk factor for injury, how passengers contribute to ATV crashes remains poorly understood. To address this question, we performed a retrospective chart review of ATV crash victims at a U.S. trauma center (2002–2013). Of 537 cases, 20% were passengers or drivers with passengers. The odds of backward rollovers, falls/ejections, crashes on sloped terrain, and collisions with motorized vehicles were all significantly greater when passengers were present. In contrast, the odds of self-ejection or falls/ejections over the handlebars were significantly lower than falls/ejections to the side or rear, in crashes with multiple riders. Among all ejections, self-ejections had the lowest head and highest extremity injury scores and being ejected over the handlebars or to the rear resulted in worse head injury scores than being ejected to the side. In summary, our study found that passengers increased the odds of specific crash and injury mechanisms and that head and extremity injury severity varied by ejection type. Safety interventions including seat design changes that prevent carrying passengers, and a strict, well-enforced no-rider rule are needed to effectively prevent passenger–related deaths and injuries. Full article
142 KiB  
Article
A Case Study: The Development of Safety Tip Sheets for ATV Use in Ranching
by Elise A. Lagerstrom, Stacy Hibiske, David Gilkey and John Rosecrance
Safety 2015, 1(1), 84-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety1010084 - 20 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4210
Abstract
Use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has become standard practice on the modern ranch. The unique operating conditions present on a ranch, subject the occupational ATV user to hazards requiring awareness and specialized training. The purpose of this study was to apply social marketing [...] Read more.
Use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has become standard practice on the modern ranch. The unique operating conditions present on a ranch, subject the occupational ATV user to hazards requiring awareness and specialized training. The purpose of this study was to apply social marketing methods to address a specific environmental health and safety issue present in the agricultural industry. A series of four ATV tip sheets were created in topic areas specific to the challenges that ATV operators encounter on a ranch. In order to evaluate the intended audiences’ perception of the tip sheets, a questionnaire was administered to all agriculture operators and producers throughout McCone County, Montana, USA. Questionnaire responses indicated that the tip sheets contained quality information and were relevant to the occupational hazards present when using ATVs for agricultural purposes. Future work should focus on the dissemination of this information and continued emphasis on industry specific training for ATV operators. Full article
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304 KiB  
Article
Predicting Whole Body Vibration Exposure from Occupational Quad Bike Use in Farmers
by Lynne Clay, Stephan Milosavljevic and Catherine Trask
Safety 2015, 1(1), 71-83; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety1010071 - 19 Nov 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5032
Abstract
Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV [...] Read more.
Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV exposure (expressed as A8rms and VDV) in farmers operating agricultural quad bikes. Data were collected in the field from 130 farmers. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to determine the models of best fit. The prediction model for A8rms exposure (explaining 57% of the variance) included farmer age, estimated quad bike driving hours on day of testing and the type of quad bike rear suspension (rigid-axle rear suspension with two shock absorbers). The best model for VDV exposure (explaining 33% of the variance) included farmer age, estimated quad bike driving hours on day of testing and the type of quad bike rear suspension (rigid-axle rear suspension with two shock absorbers). In large epidemiological studies of spinal MSDs, these models would provide an acceptable indication of WBV without the costs of direct measurement. Full article
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151 KiB  
Article
ATV-Related Workers’ Compensation Claims in Montana, 2007–2012
by Elise A. Lagerstrom, David P. Gilkey, David J. Elenbaas and John C. Rosecrance
Safety 2015, 1(1), 59-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety1010059 - 13 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5570
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze workers’ compensation injury and fatality data associated with the occupational use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in Montana. Data were provided by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry Workers’ Compensation Injury and Occupational Disease Database. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze workers’ compensation injury and fatality data associated with the occupational use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in Montana. Data were provided by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry Workers’ Compensation Injury and Occupational Disease Database. Claims were identified based on a search of injury codes related to vehicular claims and then narrowed by a keyword search for events related to ATVs. Two hundred and fifteen ATV-related claims were identified between 2007 and 2012. The majority of claimants were identified as male (85%), with 23% of total claims between the ages 20–29 at the time of injury. The agriculture industry accounted for 59% of all claims. The results of this investigation indicated that the cost of occupational ATV injuries and deaths during the study period totaled nearly $2,600,000. The agriculture industry is disproportionally represented in ATV workers’ compensation claims in Montana. Characterizing and understanding the risk factors associated with occupational-related ATV injuries is critical for developing strategies and programs aimed at injury prevention. Evaluating the gaps in data acquisition and reporting could aid in ensuring comprehensive and complete future investigations of ATV incidents. Full article
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Review

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201 KiB  
Review
Ocular and Orbital Injury in All-Terrain Vehicles: A Literature Review
by Elliot S. Crane, Anton M. Kolomeyer and Andrew W. Eller
Safety 2016, 2(4), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2040024 - 26 Oct 2016
Viewed by 4384
Abstract
Purpose: To review primary literature on ocular and orbital injury secondary to all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Methods: A Medline search of English language literature. Results: Very few studies detail ocular and orbital manifestations of ATV crashes. The most common ocular injuries included orbital fractures [...] Read more.
Purpose: To review primary literature on ocular and orbital injury secondary to all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Methods: A Medline search of English language literature. Results: Very few studies detail ocular and orbital manifestations of ATV crashes. The most common ocular injuries included orbital fractures and eyelid lacerations. Less common but more severe injuries included traumatic optic neuropathy, retinal detachment, optic nerve laceration, and ruptured globe. Associated facial and skull bone fractures, traumatic brain injury, and subdural/subarachnoid hemorrhage were not uncommon. Depending on the mechanism and force of injury, complete loss of vision has been documented. Conclusion: Ocular and orbital trauma can be found in many cases of ATV-related injury. Various interventions may decrease the frequency of such injuries, including use of head and eye protection. Full article
200 KiB  
Review
A Review on All Terrain Vehicle Safety
by Vanessa J. Fawcett, Bonnie Tsang, Amir Taheri, Kathy Belton and Sandy L. Widder
Safety 2016, 2(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020015 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6690
Abstract
All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have become increasing popular in many countries around the world, both for occupational use, as well as recreational use. With an increase in popularity, and the supply of heavier and more powerful machines on the market, major traumas and deaths [...] Read more.
All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have become increasing popular in many countries around the world, both for occupational use, as well as recreational use. With an increase in popularity, and the supply of heavier and more powerful machines on the market, major traumas and deaths from ATV use are growing concerns for public health and injury prevention professionals. This review of the literature on ATVs will focus on the mechanism and patterns of ATV-related injuries, the challenges of injury prevention, and the effects of legislation and regulations regarding ATV usage. The increasing burden of injuries and the substantial economic cost from ATV-related traumas and deaths calls for intensification of injury prevention efforts. Modification of risk factors, institution of regulations and legislation, and enforcement of those rules are important steps for prevention of ATV-related harm. Full article
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