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Article

Long-Term Irrigation with Treated Municipal Wastewater from the Wadi-Musa Region: Soil Heavy Metal Accumulation, Uptake and Partitioning in Olive Trees

1
Department of Agriculture Sciences, Faculty of Shoubak College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan
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Department of Land, Water and Environment, School of Agriculture, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
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Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, School of Agriculture, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Francini
Horticulturae 2021, 7(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060152
Received: 30 May 2021 / Revised: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Utilization of treated wastewater (TWW) for agricultural purposes has grown over the past few years because of limited available water resources. This study was performed to assess the long-term irrigation of treated wastewater from the Wadi-Musa region on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their uptake and translocation to various parts of olive trees. Fifteen year old trees that had been grown and irrigated with treated wastewater resources since their establishment were used in this study. Irrigation water, soil, and plant samples (root, stem bark, leaves, fruits) were collected and chemically analyzed for their heavy metal content. Accumulation of heavy metals in irrigation water and soil were found to be within the acceptable range for the safe use of treated wastewater according to the standards of the WHO. However, long-term and continuous irrigation with TWW resulted in significant accumulation of heavy metals in plant parts when compared to their levels in irrigation water and soil. Uptake of metals was consistent among plant parts with the highest concentrations for Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, and the lowest concentrations for Ni, Cr and Cd. Assessment of the bioaccumulation factor (BFC) and translocation factors (TF) of heavy metals into different plant parts indicated selective absorption and partitioning of these heavy metals into different plant parts. High BCF values were observed for Fe, Cu and Ni in roots and fruits, and Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb in leaves. Translocation factors of metal ions were variable among plant parts. Fruits had the highest TF for Cu, Cd and Zn metals, and the lowest for Mn and Fe, while leaves have the highest TF for Fe, Zn and Mn and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The results of this study indicate that olive trees are heavy metal accumulators, caution should be considered in long-term use of TWW and periodic assessment of possible hazards, especially on fruits and oil quality is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioconcentration factor; heavy metals; irrigation; Olea europaea L.; translocation factor; treated wastewater bioconcentration factor; heavy metals; irrigation; Olea europaea L.; translocation factor; treated wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Habahbeh, K.A.; Al-Nawaiseh, M.B.; Al-Sayaydeh, R.S.; Al-Hawadi, J.S.; Albdaiwi, R.N.; Al-Debei, H.S.; Ayad, J.Y. Long-Term Irrigation with Treated Municipal Wastewater from the Wadi-Musa Region: Soil Heavy Metal Accumulation, Uptake and Partitioning in Olive Trees. Horticulturae 2021, 7, 152. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060152

AMA Style

Al-Habahbeh KA, Al-Nawaiseh MB, Al-Sayaydeh RS, Al-Hawadi JS, Albdaiwi RN, Al-Debei HS, Ayad JY. Long-Term Irrigation with Treated Municipal Wastewater from the Wadi-Musa Region: Soil Heavy Metal Accumulation, Uptake and Partitioning in Olive Trees. Horticulturae. 2021; 7(6):152. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060152

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Habahbeh, Khaled A., Mohamed B. Al-Nawaiseh, Rabea S. Al-Sayaydeh, Jehad S. Al-Hawadi, Randa N. Albdaiwi, Hmoud S. Al-Debei, and Jamal Y. Ayad 2021. "Long-Term Irrigation with Treated Municipal Wastewater from the Wadi-Musa Region: Soil Heavy Metal Accumulation, Uptake and Partitioning in Olive Trees" Horticulturae 7, no. 6: 152. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060152

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