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Climate Changes and Food Quality: The Potential of Microbial Activities as Mitigating Strategies in the Wine Sector

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, degli Alimenti e dell’Ambiente, Università di Foggia, via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy
2
EnolabERI BioTecMed, Universitat de València, 46100 Valencia, Spain
3
Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Unità Operativa di Supporto di Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2019, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5040085
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
Climate change threatens food systems, with huge repercussions on food security and on the safety and quality of final products. We reviewed the potential of food microbiology as a source of biotechnological solutions to design climate-smart food systems, using wine as a model productive sector. Climate change entails considerable problems for the sustainability of oenology in several geographical regions, also placing at risk the wine typicity. The main weaknesses identified are: (i) The increased undesired microbial proliferation; (ii) the improved sugars and, consequently, ethanol content; (iii) the reduced acidity and increased pH; (iv) the imbalanced perceived sensory properties (e.g., colour, flavour); and (v) the intensified safety issues (e.g., mycotoxins, biogenic amines). In this paper, we offer an overview of the potential microbial-based strategies suitable to cope with the five challenges listed above. In terms of microbial diversity, our principal focus was on microorganisms isolated from grapes/musts/wines and on microbes belonging to the main categories with a recognized positive role in oenological processes, namely Saccharomyces spp. (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae), non-Saccharomyces yeasts (e.g., Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Starmerella bacillaris), and malolactic bacteria (e.g., Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus plantarum). View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; food quality; viticulture; wine; fermentation; yeast; Saccharomyces; non-Saccharomyces; alcoholic fermentation; lactic acid bacteria; malolactic fermentation climate change; food quality; viticulture; wine; fermentation; yeast; Saccharomyces; non-Saccharomyces; alcoholic fermentation; lactic acid bacteria; malolactic fermentation
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Berbegal, C.; Fragasso, M.; Russo, P.; Bimbo, F.; Grieco, F.; Spano, G.; Capozzi, V. Climate Changes and Food Quality: The Potential of Microbial Activities as Mitigating Strategies in the Wine Sector. Fermentation 2019, 5, 85.

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